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Transcript of Avery SAD
SAD: A Controlled Study
Doctor David H. Avery is a psychiatrist.
Washington University School of Medicine, M.D., Medicine.
Professor at University of Washington School of Medicine
Director of Inpatient Psychiatry at Harborview Medical Center
Who is Avery?
(1) To determine whether 6 weeks of dawn simulation is an effective treatment for
SAD patients relative to a placebo condition.
(2) to determine whether 6 weeks of bright light therapy is a effective treatment for SAD relative to a placebo condition.
(3) to determine whether dawn simulation is as
effective as bright light therapy in treating SAD.
The sample was composed of 95 participants subjected to three conditions:
Bright light therapy
Placebo dawn simulation
Dawn simulation results in greater remission and response rates compared to the placebo condition and compared to the bright light theraphy. Bright light therapy was similar in efficacy to the placebo. Dawn simulation in this study was superior to the bright light therapy.
Results of the Study
By The Jambalayas
Avery's SAD and melatonin
Command Terms and GLT's
: any of several chemical substances that transmit nerve impulses across a junction between two nerve cells to a postsynaptic element, as another nerve, muscle, or gland
: Seasonal Affective Disorder. it is a type of depression that occurs during a certain season, usually fall or winter
: a hormone secreted by the pineal gland in inverse proportion to the amount of light received by the retina, important in the regulation of biorhythms:in amphibians, it causes a lightening of the skin
:a small, cone-shaped endocrine organ in the posterior forebrain, secreting melatonin and involved in biorhythms and gonadal development
: type of therapy that treats SAD
SAD patients were recruited through advertisement, referral from physicians, and media exposure over four fall–winter periods
Subjects fulfilled DSM-IV Criteria for Major Depression or Bipolar Disorder.
Type Of Experiment
it was a controlled study
each was randomly assigned to 1 out of 3 conditions
(bright light therapy, dawn simulation, and placebo condition)
It is a lab experiment. The participants were separated in 3 environment; Bright light therapy, dawn simulation, and placebo condition.
For 7 weeks, the subjects visited the clinic for a weekly assessments
asked to sleep only between the hours of 9:00 PM and 6:00 AM and keep a daily log
The subjects were not allowed to drink alcohol or use drugs and sleeping medication
Caffeine use was limited
The subjects’ bedrooms were required to be dark. During the study, they were asked to avoid any
outdoor light before 8:00 AM and any direct sunlight during the day.
Subjects were asked to either stay indoors if the sun were shining, or use sunglasses if they had to go outside.
There 3 types of environment; Bright light, dawn simulation, and placebo condition.
subjects were randomized, stratified according to gender into one of three treatment groups.
The morning light was comprised of
bright (10,000 lux) light box treatment 6:00 AM to 6:30 AM. Subjects were then told to position themselves to make
their eyes 30 cm from the box. The subjects used the bright light
the principles that define the biological level of analysis.
Outline: To give a brief account or summary
#1. Some peoples moods change depending on the amount of light and season.
Dawn simulation. The dawn simulation consisted
of a white light with a gradually increasing
illuminance from 4:30 AM to 6:00 AM peaking at
250 lux (similar to average room light level) in the
bedroom while the subject is asleep.
Placebo condition. The placebo dawn simulation was
administered like the active dawn, but consisted of a dim red light with a gradually increasing illuminance (during sleep) from
4:30 AM to 6:00 AM peaking at 0.5 lux. The placebo signal had a similar shape as the dawn simulation
7. Using one or more examples, explain functions of two hormones in human behaviour.
#7 The hormone, melatonin, helps one's ability to sleep. It is stimulated by darkness and inhibited by light. Evidence proves that higher levels of melatonin contributes to SAD - subcategory of depression that is characterized by sleepiness and lethargy.
two effects of the environment on physiological processes.
Discuss: A review that includes a range of arguments, factors or hypothesis.Conclusions and opinions must be supported by appropriate evidence.
#8 Reduced levels of sunlight in fall and winter disrupt the circadian rhythm, the biological clock based on a 24 hour day/night cycle which leads to form depression. People with SAD are depressed during fall and winter. However, feels much better during spring and summer.
What is SAD?
SAD stands for Seasonal Affective Disorder, a type of depression that occurs during autumn and winter. People with SAD are moody, depressed and lethargic during winter time. It is caused by lack of light
Bright Light Therapy
how principles that define the biological level of analysis.
Explain: To give a detailed account including reasons or causes.
#2. The researchers conducted a controlled study on participants where they controlled the amount of light they received and the environment the study.
Many controlled study have found bright light therapy effective in treating SAD. However, patients complained about the inconvenience of the bright light therapy. Avery conducted a study to compare bright light therapy with dawn simulation and found that Dawn simulation offers some advantages over traditional bright light box therapy. Because dawn simulation occurs during sleep, it is very convenient. This convenience is likely to result in better compliance than with bright light therapy.
IB Psychology Textbook, Pearson.
Participants were debriefed about the study.
Participants were able to withdraw during the experiment at any time.
Two patients in the bright light group dropped out of the study because of nausea and severe headache, another reported a progressive increase in difficulty going to sleep to the point that the subject was awake all night.
The placebo group was significantly more likely to complain of insomnia.