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NetSci High TEAM 1

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B Patil

on 13 June 2014

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Transcript of NetSci High TEAM 1

High School Communication:
Electronic
or Face-to-Face?

Network Science Center
at West Point
& Newburgh Free Academy
A COLLABORATION BETWEEN
Research Question 1
RQ1:
Is there a difference between the electronic and face-to-face communication networks based on gender?

RQ2:
Is there a difference in type of communication by grade level?

RQ3:
Is there a difference based on what the students are communicating about?
(classwork, after school activities, and personal issues)
Research Questions
Conclusions
Christian Benitez-Santos
Bhavana Patil
Chaeyoung Seo
Advisors: Veronica Dunham
Lori Sheetz

Background
Methodology
Newburgh Free Academy
, a unique inner city public high school with 3,600 students
A social network survey was conducted
The data was entered into a network visualization program to explore research questions about
how electronic communication compares to face-to-face

communication
at NFA
With technology becoming a larger part of society, this research explores what methods of communication students are utilizing at NFA
Survey written
Survey distributed to NFA high school
Data collected
Data entered into Excel
Data scrubbed with Google Refine
Networks analyzed and visualized
Analysis
Research Question 3
Question 3 Analysis
Challenges
Low return rate
of surveys
Learning how to use technology tools
Collaboration as a team
— bouncing ideas off of one another, using individual skills to put together a product
Time management
also became a challenge, as we all had busy high school schedules
Abstract
POPULATION BY CAMPUS
With technology so prevalent in our society the team wanted to compare electronic and face-to-face communication at Newburgh Free Academy (NFA)

A survey was administered to all students at NFA to find out who they were communicating with electronically and face-to-face about different topics

The team calculated network densities and clustering coefficients and looked at QAP correlations to compare the two types of communication networks by gender, grade, and by topic of communication

The general trend is that the electronic networks have higher densities and clustering coefficients than face-to-face networks and also have a higher percentage of nodes with high out-degree.
Newburgh Free Academy
Student Network by Grade Level
GENDER BREAKDOWN
BREAKDOWN BY GRADE AND GENDER
NFA
Survey
The 10th graders at North Campus are over-represented in the survey; however, the majority of the respondents represent a <5% difference from the actual student body population.
Is there a difference between the electronic and face-to-face communication networks based on gender?
Legend
NETWORKS BY GENDER
QAP
Legend:
NFA
Survey
NFA
Survey
RETURN RATE
Generalizability
Electronic
Face-to-face
9th grade
10th grade

11th grade
12th grade
Male
Female
Analysis
Research Question 2
9th Grade Networks
10th Grade Networks
11th Grade Networks
12th Grade Networks
Face-to-Face
Electronic
Electronic
Face-to-Face
Electronic
Face-to-Face
Electronic
Face-to-Face
CLASSWORK NETWORK
ACTIVITIES NETWORK
PERSONAL NETWORKS


The 9th graders cluster the most and have a higher density face to face, possibly because they are meeting many new people during their first year of high school.

The 10th graders have an abnormally high network density, but a relatively low clustering coefficient.
Is there a difference in type of communication by grade level?
Is there a difference based on what the students are communicating about?
(classwork, after school activities, or personal issues)
Classwork Network:
The clustering coefficient for electronic communication is twice that of face-to-face, suggesting they form tightly knit academic circles through technology.

Personal Issues Network:
Students cluster over electronic methods slightly more than they do face-to-face.

Activities Network:
The clustering in both electronic and face-to-face activities network is equal. One reason is that activities require both physical attendance and electronic correspondence to communicate.
The research team wanted to see how well the survey population reflected the population of the student body.
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
When analyzed by grade level, networks show that
students communicate with more classmates over electronic means,

with the exception of 9th grade.
The general trend is that the electronic networks have higher densities and clustering coefficients than face to face networks.
Research Question 3
Students communicate with the
same
number of people for personal, after school activities, and academic reasons, but
the students cluster
in the academic networks.
cluster
High School Communication: Electronic or Face-to-Face?
Face-to-face
Electronic
Face-to-face
Electronic
Face-to-Face
Electronic
REPRESENTATION OF % OF TOTAL POPULATION
We ran a QAP analysis with 1000 permutations and face-to-face communication as the independent network and electronic communication as dependent network.
Female students at NFA cluster twice as frequently as males do
over both electronic and face-to-face means.
Legend:
9th grade
10th grade

11th grade
12th grade
Legend:
9th grade
10th grade

11th grade
12th grade
Legend:
9th grade
10th grade

11th grade
12th grade
Out-Degree
Throughout all the grades, more females participated in the surveys than the males.
With the exception of the 10th graders at North Campus, there is a <5% difference from the actual student body population.
SUMMARY
We calculated the Out-Degree for the Electronic and Face-to-Face Networks at NFA.
Face-to-Face
Electronic
9th grade

10th grade
11th grade

12th grade
ANALYSIS
Females have a slightly higher density electronically than do males
Females cluster almost twice as frequently as males both electronically and face-to-face
There is higher correlation between female electronic and face-to-face networks than corresponding female networks
Results could be impacted by our higher survey return rate for females.
Gender | Correlation
Female | 0.612
Male | 0.503
QAP Correlation
We ran a QAP analysis by grade level with 1000 permutations and face-to-face communication as the independent network and electronic communication as dependent network.
Grade | Correlation
9 | 0.49
10 | 0.636
11 | 0.631
12 | 0.579
The 10th grade has the highest correlation between electronic and face-to-face networks with a correlation coefficient of 0.636.

The 9th graders electronic and face-to-face networks correlate the least (0.49) of all grades, possibly because 9th graders are continuing to communicate with their old friends electronically who they don't necessarily see.
QAP Analysis
QAP Correlation
We ran a QAP analysis by topic with face-to-face communication as the independent network and electronic communication as dependent network.
Topic | Correlation
classwork | 0.283
activities | 0.273
personal | 0.368
The nodes in the network are colored by grade level and then sized by out-degree. Comparing the Electronic and Face-to-Face communication networks, we see that there are more of these large nodes in the electronic network at all grade levels.
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