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WWI: Influence on Religion
Transcript of WWI: Influence on Religion
Religion Kaitlyn Waters Karl Barth
The Father of Neo-
Orthodoxy Emil Brunner About Emil Contributions to Neo-
Orthodoxy Revelation and Salvation Finishing Touches on Barth "Wholly Other" What? How "Wholly Other"
Fits Into Theology Background on Barth Before
WWI After WWI DuringWWI Brief Background After 1870, nationalism became the secular religion of Europe after the unification of Italy and Germany.
Nationalism seemed to be a replacement of organized Christianity.
Organized Christianity was already declining in influence.
With nationalism, being killed in action was "the most glorious form of public service and self-sacrifice."
("World War One: Origins") Religion was to blame for WWI, according to Bertrand Russell.
Opposition came from Socialists who were "anti-Christian", since "the First World War was wholly Christian in origin", as claimed by Russell.
Most of the participants were either Orthodox Christians or Catholic; there had always been disputes among these religions.
("Religion") ("WORLD WAR ONE") Views on religion changed.
Churches were blamed for not taking action against war.
Basic, underlying causes of the war must be dealt with by proclaiming the Gospel of a transcendent God to the social order and to individuals.
There are 3 main names to focus on: Karl Barth, H. Emil Brunner, and Rudolf K. Bultmann.
(Maxfield) Born in Switzerland to theologian father
Active member of the Religious Socialist movement
Questioned religion during WWI; liberal theology and social democracy had been destroyed at the beginning of the war
("Karl Barth") (Maxfield) Met Eduard Thurneysen, another pastor
"What we need for preaching, instruction and pastoral care is a 'wholly other' theological foundation." -Thurneysen, June 1916
German phrase "ganze andere"="wholly other"
-Sacred/Radically different from anything in the common world
(Maxfield) Thurneysen and Barth wanted to start from scratch, be totally different from anything they learned in university.
God is transcendent, away from the war and destruction in Europe during WWI, unlike the immanent God of the liberal theology (that Barth loved).
Barth became "The Father of Neo Orthodoxy" with his "Epistle to the Romans".
(Maxfield) ("Karl Barth") About his "Epistle to the Romans", Barth said, "When I first wrote it...it required only a little imagination to hear the sound of the guns booming away in the north." This was because he knew that this work was a response to the theological crisis presented by WWI.
He created a contrast between the holiness of God and the sins/troubles of the world.
"Epistle to the Romans" shattered liberal theology and established the new theological movement.
(Maxfield) Reformed theologian at Zurich
Part of the Neo-Orthodoxy movement during the 1920s
(Maxfield) Emil said the sources of the common movement were Swiss Religious Socialism and Christoph Blumhardt.
He proclaimed a radical discontinuity between the world and God.
Brunner claimed that this human society, with its sins and vices was not God's World.
"A hunger and thirst for something better, a sincere whole-hearted disgust with things as they are, a courageous uncompromising protest and earnest break with that which belongs not to God."
2 doctrines: Revelation and Salvation
(Maxfield) Revelation- the sacred makes itself known
The supreme Revelation is Jesus Christ
Salvation- more urgency; evil human nature was made evident with WWI, and initiative for salvation was with God
(Maxfield) (Hesselink) Rudolf Bultmann Who? Biblical scholar
Part of liberal theology
Quoted extensively from Schleiermacher. What Bultmann Thought Before WWI, religion was part of culture and therefore gave endorsements of the national culture's war.
Rudolf agreed that religion was part of culture, but the central part of religion was a yearning; this brought the believer beyond culture.
In culture, religion doesn't have to justify its existence, but must still speak prophetically to culture.
(Maxfield) More of What Rudolf Thought Influenced by Heidegger
His treatment of "authentic" existence was used by Rudolf to illuminate the biblical idea of a life of faith and clarify notions of sin and guilt.
Separated the essential gospel message from 1st century view
Not eliminating miracle stories, but interpreting them to match man's understanding of his situation and fundamental possibilities.
-Ex: Resurrection= no revived corpse, but display possibility of entrance to a new dimension
(Maxfield) ("Rudolf") Sources "Karl Barth." Theopedia. <http://www.theopedia.com/Karl_Barth>.
Hesselink, I. John. "Emil Brunner: A Centennial Perspective." religion-online. N.p.. Web. 14 Apr 2013. <http://www.religion-online.org/showarticle.asp?title=915>.
Maxfield, Charles A. The Effects of World War I on Christian Thought in Europe. 1992. Web. <http://www.maxfieldbooks.com/WorldWar1.html>.
"Religion and the War." World War I. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/World_War_I>.
"Rudolf Karl Bultmann." Encyclopedia of World Biography. 2004. Encyclopedia.com. 14 Apr. 2013. <http://www.encyclopedia.com>.
"World War I: Origins of the War in Europe." Honor the Colors: Iowa's Civil War Battle Flags. State Historical Society of Iowa. Web. 14 Apr 2013. <http://www.iowahistory.org/museum/battleflags/exhibit/assets/wwi_origins_in_europe.pdf>.
"WORLD WAR ONE." Pacific Institute. N.p.. Web. 14 Apr 2013. <http://www.pacinst.com/terrorists/chapter6/ww1.html>.