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Cyclic Patterns of Lunar Phases, Eclipses of the Sun and Moon

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Marissa Z.

on 17 October 2014

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Transcript of Cyclic Patterns of Lunar Phases, Eclipses of the Sun and Moon

Cyclic Patterns of Lunar Phases
Cyclic Patterns of Lunar Phases, Eclipses of the Sun and Moon, and Seasons
The Moon's orbit around Earth
How the Sun illuminates the Moon
The Phases
The easiest lunar phases to remember are the:
New Moon
First Quarter
Full Moon
Third Quarter
Waning Gibbous
is the size between a Full Moon and a Third Quarter, and means three fourths of a full moon, but getting smaller.

Waning Crescent
is the size between the Third Quarter and the New Moon and means one fourths of a full moon, but getting smaller
The term:
Waxing--
getting larger
Waning
means getting smaller
Gibbous
means three quarters of a moon
Crescent
means one fourth of a moon.
The other four are
Waxing Gibbous
Waning Gibbous
Waning Crescent
Waxing Crescent.
It takes 27 days for the Moon to fully orbit around the Earth
Why the phases are the same each month
The Moon is always half lit by the Sun
Depending on where the Moon is, it appears that the Sun is illuminating it differently
It all depends on how Earth and the Moon are positioned
Seasonal Changes
Seasons
Winter
Least amount of sunlight
Colder temperatures
Spring
Increasing sunlight
Warmer temperatures
Summer
Most amount of sunlight
Warmest temperatures
Fall
Decreasing sunlight
Cooler temperatures
Why are there seasons?
23.5 degree tilt away from Earth's elliptic path; Tilt not perpindicular to path
Elliptic path--
The oval shaped rotation the Earth makes around the Sun
Earth not consistently at the same distance away from the Sun
Without the tilt, the whole world would have the same season at the same time
The Northern Hemisphere is tilted more towards the Sun than the Southern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere receives more sunlight
Northern Hemisphere has summer
Southern Hemisphere has winter
Earth (on it's elliptical path) is the most far away from the Sun in June
In the months of June-August
Months of December-February
The Northern Hemisphere is tilted more away from Sun than the Southern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere receives less sunlight
Northern Hemisphere has winter
Southern Hemisphere has summer
Earth (on it's elliptical path) is the closets to the Sun in January
Solstices for the Northern Hemisphere
Winter Solstice;
When the south pole is pointing the most directly to the Sun
Shortest day of the year
First day of winter
Summer Solstice;
When the north pole is pointing the most directly to the Sun
Longest day of the year
First day of summer
What the phases' terms mean
Equinoxes for the Northern Hemisphere
Autumnal equinox;
When both the day and night are the same length
First day of fall
Vernal Equinox;
When both the day and night are the same length
First day of spring
Lunar Eclipses
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
Partial Lunar Eclipse
Total Lunar Eclipse
The three types of lunar eclipses
A diagram explaining how lunar eclipses happen
Penumbral Lunar Eclipse
Less of an eclipse than a partial
Portion of Moon is dark
The whole moon passes through Earth's penumbral shadow
Partial Eclipse
Portion of the moon passes through Earth's umbral shadow
Total Lunar Eclipse
Full Moon passes through Earth's umbral shadow
Can only happen with full moon
Earth blocks sunlight, indirect light still hits it
Reason for Moon appearing red
Earth’s atmosphere filters out most blue sunlight
Remaining sunlight is orange
Illuminates the moon
Creates a red Moon
All total eclipses have the process of:
Start with penumbral eclipse
to partial eclipse
to totality of the eclipse
to partial eclipse
to penumbral eclipse

Solar Eclipses
A diagram explaining how lunar eclipses happen
Shadows: Penumbra vs Umbra
Penumbra:
Faint outer shadow
Umbra:
Dark inner shadow
Partial Solar Eclipse
Happens when:
Sun, Moon and Earth aligned
In the above order
Moon's penumbral shadow cast on Earth
Total eclipse
Happens when:
Sun, Moon, and Earth align
In the above order
Moon's umbral shadow cast on Earth
White in picture is Sun's corona
Only visible during total solar eclipses
Dark circle is the moon
Totality is only several minutes
Visible in a small part of Earth
Types of Solar Eclipses
Partial
Total
Annular
Hybrid
Happens when:
Sun, Moon, and Earth align
In the above order
Moon's atnumbral shadow falls on Earth
Umbral shadow not long enough
Annular Solar Eclipse
Lasts up to twelve minutes
Average time six minutes
Solar corona not visible
Why these eclipses happen
Moon's rotation around Earth is an ellipsis
Sometimes the Moon appears too small
Doesn't completely block the Sun's disc--
Location of Sun compared to the Moon
All types solar eclipses are pretty rare
Most rare is a hybrid solar eclipse
Hybrid Eclipses
Initially an annular eclipse
Moves to a total eclipse
to a
Annular Eclipse
Total Eclipse
Any Questions?
Why do we see different shapes of the Moon?
Waxing Gibbous
is the size between the First Quarter and the Full Moon, and means three fourths of a full moon, but getting larger.

Waxing Crescent
is one size between the New Moon and the First Quarter and means one fourth of a full moon, but getting larger
Partial eclipse pictures
Picture of a partial eclipse
A Blood Moon, in totality.
A partial solar eclipse
Full transcript