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Chapter 11, Section 2: Conflicts Over Land
Transcript of Chapter 11, Section 2: Conflicts Over Land
Moving Native Americans
Large number of Native Americans lived in the eastern part of the country
in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida many Native Americans held valuable land
gold was discovered in Georgia
Settlers and Andrew Jackson wanted Native Americans gone
Indian Removal Act
Passed by congress in 1830
Allowed federal government to pay Native Americans to move west
Jackson sent officials to negotiate and many Native Americans were "compelled" to accept the offer
1834 Congress created Indian territory in Oklahoma
The Cherokee refused to give up land
They said a treaty had been signed in the 1790's that guaranteed their land and the Cherokee were recognized as a separate nation
Georgia refused to follow the treaty
Worcester vs. Georgia
The Cherokee take their case to court
John Ross was a Cherokee chief and a lawyer - he took Georgia to court
Supreme Court sided with the Cherokee and said the treaty was a legal document that Georgia had to obey
Georgia refused to follow the Supreme Court ruling
Andrew Jackson sided with Georgia and would not enforce the ruling
Trail of Tears
In 1835 some Cherokee signed a treaty and and agreed to move but many did not
1838 General Winfield Scott and 7,000 federal troops are sent to remove remaining 80,000 Cherokee and members of the other Five Civilized Tribes to the west
Brutal weather claimed nearly 10,000 lives along the 850 mile trek
to forcefully move a group to another location
John Ross -
represented the Cherokee people in the Supreme Court case to keep their land
Black Hawk -
leader of the Sauk people
invented a written Cherokee alphabet
Trail of Tears -
began in Georgia, ended in Oklahoma
2. What did Andrew Jackson say about the Worchester vs. Georgia case?
"John Marshal has made his decision, now let him enforce it"
Essay #2. Explain how the Cherokee and Seminal Indian reacted differently to relocation.
Cherokee went through legal means (Worchester vs. Georgia), and made treaties
Seminal led an armed resistance. Chief Osceola declared war on the U.S.
Native American Resistance
1832 Chief Black Hawk led a force of Sauk and Fox to recapture their homeland in Illinois
Illinois state militia slaughtered many of the Sauk warriors as they fled across the Mississippi River
Sauk and Fox
The Seminole people of Florida were led by Chief Osceola who refused to leave and declared war on the U.S.
They joined forces with escaped African Americans and used guerrilla warfare to ambush American forces
By 1842 the U.S. government gave up and allowed some of the Seminole to remain in Florida
What do you see happening in this picture?