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Cross-Cultural Gender Roles.

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Amy Albee

on 18 October 2013

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Transcript of Cross-Cultural Gender Roles.

An International Comparison
Gender Systems
United States
A gay or woman-identified man is refered to as Muxe. A Nguiu’ for a lesbian-identified woman in Zapotec.
According to Analisa Taylor, the "traditional gender-specific roles dictate that women be entrepreneurs, managing community and household affairs, while the men carry out the behind-the-scenes labor in the fields and at sea at fishermen.

Taylor, A. (2006). Malinche and Matriarchal Utopia: Gendered Visions of Indigeneity in Mexico. Signs: Journal Of Women In Culture & Society, 31(3), 815-840.


Neither Man nor Woman—S. Nanda



In colonial Mexico, women, gender-queer, and homosexuals were victimized by the local men. The men who sodomized them gained no consequences by their actions. To courts deemed the men in the sodomy cases were more responsible than those who were raped.
Inside a typical Mexican home, the man is affected by a powerful strain of masculinity called
But a traditional Juchita´n household is an exception to this manly ideal
Families is Juchita´n want to have
in their home because they say it makes a happier home.
By: Amy Albee
The Mexican society only recognizes a binary gender system. But the people of Juchita´n beg to differ. In this small town in Oaxaca, Mexico, the inhabitants openly accept anyone regardless of their gender identity.
Jo Ma on Jun 05, 2009
The societal roles of the gender are contingent upon the culture.
More progressive cultures give life to expanding ideas in womanhood
Such as: lawyers, politicians, etc
More dictatorships empower the idea of traditional roles in womanhood and manhood
What are social roles of each gender?
Some cultures such as Judaism give women a more prominent role in society
From folklore to religion women are made to be more accustomed into the social atmosphere of the culture
Interesting from Different Cultures
Society’s recognition or acknowledgement of these genders come from their social norms
Some societies do not recognize others genders, while others do
Things that mold peoples outlook are: Political Governance, Religion, area and region

- ambiguous genitalia, binary identification
- (broad term)- not traditional “assigned” roles (biological/social)
- stages of gender reassignment surgery(you have to do counseling and testing before you can get this surgery this may take many years.
How many genders do the People recognize?
Traditionally human genetics have depicted only two races which are male and female
The scientific approach
XYY and XXY = Male
XXX = Female
Some recognize transgender as a separate race increasing that number to three.
Intersexuality is a third or “other gender” that is not defined genetically as either male or female
Many of the World’s cultures recognized more than two genders.
Among Native Americans, there has been third, fourth, and fifth cultures.
Berdache is defined as spirituality, androgyny, and woman’s work and male homosexual relationships
How many Genders does the culture recognize?
Gender-specific education; high professional qualification is important only for the male
Men have the last say, for example in choosing the place to live, choice of school for children, buying decisions
What are social roles of each gender? Cont'd
Housekeeping and child care are the primary function.
Woman take care of the largest part of these functions; she educates her children
By: Renee Irvine
The Bugi people and the five genders of Indonesia
Indonesia is a collection of islands located between China and Australia.
Indonesia is home to 237,424,363 people.
There are seven island regions.
Indonesia relies heavily on their agriculture exports.
Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system.
There are 300 native ethnic groups.
Indonesia is the worlds most populist Muslim majority nation.
The Bugi people are from South Sulawesi.
You can see in the Bugi culture that what you are isn’t really a factor.
It’s what you do with your life that is what is important.
The Bugi people are very attuned with nature and harmonizing with their environment
Without one gender they believe that society will become unbalanced
The Bugi people are staunch believers in Islam, and they are willing to bend their own beliefs to align with Allah.
Five genders harmonizing
The calalai are born female but take on the roles of a man.
The Calali can walk into men’s bodies as well as woman’s.
As long as their not a burden on the Bugi they can be Calalai.
Like the Calabia as long as they work hard they can be what they want
The Calalai
The Calabai are men who act like women.
Calabai are known to be wedding planners.
The Calabai
The advice of the Bissu is sought out when guidance from the spiritual world is needed.
The Bissu are aloud to enter women and men's dwellings.
The Bissu are aloud to practice their spiritual guidance as long as it doesn’t affect their Islamic beliefs.
The Bissu believes that everything should live harmoniously.
The Bissu
The Bugi people have five genders in their culture.
Male, Female, Bissu, Calabai, Calalai,
Bissu - means that you were born intersexed
Calabai - is a 'false woman‘ these people are generally physically male but take on the role of a heterosexual female.
Calalai – Born as a woman but  takes on the roles of a heterosexual male.
The Bugi people
How many genders does the culture recognize?
How many genders do the people recognize?

The people of the Indian Culture recognize three genders. However, the Hijras are not really accepted, they are essentially shunned. They are the outcasts of the society.
By: Jasmine Holliday
What are the societal roles of each gender?

In the past the Hijras danced at the birthing of a child. If it was a boy they were there to bless him with fertility and the family with good fortune. Many hijras have turned to prostitution; however this sexual activity undermines their culturally valued sacred role.
Today women also have the choice to take on a more traditional role and stay home and raise their children. Society should respect them and not look down on them for this choice. In reality this job is the most important because they are shaping their children's future.
The End
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