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Unit 2: History

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Lucy Van Der Merwe

on 23 February 2014

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Transcript of Unit 2: History

Unit 2: History (Part 1, African and South-African History)
Africa was
Its wealth was being used to develop another continent
Its people were being

Britain and France
had the largest number of colonial states in Africa
Germany, Spain, Italy, Belgium and Portugal also had their colonies.
The Europeans used
as an excuse for colonising the African states.

Long-term effects
of important
natural resources
like gold and rubber economic devastation
cultural confusion
geo-political division.
Tried to make Africans more like Europeans.
They created
among ethnic groups = led to civil wars such as the Rwandan Genocide of 1994.
Discovery of
gold and diamonds
in Africa increased European interest in the continent
Not fight over the land, European powers met at the
Berlin Conference
in 1884-85 = agreed on the partitioning of the African territory.
They agreed that any nation could
any part of Africa
simply by telling the others
and by showing that it had control of the area.
By 1914,
Liberia and Ethiopia
were the only African countries which were
under European control.
They build plantations where they grew
peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber.
They also took
important minerals
from different countries and sent them to their countries of origin.
Decolonisation and the formation of the OAU
era which changed the map of Africa =
formation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU)
in 1963
At the time of its formation, Africa comprised 32 independent states
OAU was seen as a vehicle for strengthening solidarity between these states and for the
advancement of the anti-colonial struggle
still continuing in parts of the continent
Colonial oppression and exploitation within colonies helped
unite different ethnic and religious groups
in a struggle against colonialism

Statement that was very popular in the 1960s and 1970s - No African is Free until all Africans are Free! (Exploring Africa, 2012)
Government support for those struggling for freedom
(Angola, Mozambique, Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe), Namibia, and South Africa)
a central foreign policy focus of most African countries implemented until these countries gained their independence.
of the OAU has been
decolonization of Africa
As a first step, the founding meeting agreed to support the movements in areas still under foreign or minority domination.
OAU Charter
clearly propounded non-interference in the internal affairs of member states and endorsed the principle of territorial integrity and respect for the existing borders created by the colonial powers.
The organisation was
empowered to act on inter-African disputes
only if the relevant parties consented to such action.


the significant events of the last century in South Africa, Africa and the World.

Understand and explain
the significance that the First World War had on world affairs.

Understand and explain
the significance that the Second World War had on world affairs.
Significant Events of the last century (1900-2012)
1. African History

1.1 Age of

Early 1800s, European nations did
not have
much influence in Africa.
Only held areas along the
In the mid-1800 = Europeans
renewed their interest in Africa
= a desire to
create overseas empires
Movement called

EN wanted to control lands that had
raw materials
they needed for their
industrial economies
Wanted to open up
for the goods they made.
Nationalism = drive for empires as well.
Empire = Power and authority

Christian missionaries
supported imperialism.
European rule would end the slave trade and help them
native peoples.
Result = the nations of Europe
lands in

Speeded up by
technology (steam engines, railroads, and telegraphs
(Reid, 2009).
The Europeans were able to penetrate deep into Africa and still have
with the home country.
Machine guns
Lack of unity
among African peoples.
This became known as the
‘Scramble for Africa’.
Activity 2: Videos on Imperialism and the Scramble of Africa

What are your thoughts on this?

Check map on Page 19
Today, the
OAU no longer exists
it was succeeded by the A
frican Union (AU)
in 2002.

The AU was formed to:
Accelerate the political and socio-economic integration of the continent
To promote and defend African common positions on issues of interest to the continent and its peoples
To achieve peace and security in Africa
To promote democratic institutions, good governance and human rights.

OAU needed to change its focus
because it was formed with the aim of helping to liberate many African countries and by 2002 all the countries in Africa had gained political independence.
Activity 3: (Group activity)

On your tablet Google a country in Africa and answer the following questions on page 22

Design a Powerpoint Presentation with images and do a 10 minute presentation to the rest of the class

Please post your presentation on Edmodo
2 South-African History
2.1 The Anglo-Boer War
Beginning of the
twentieth century
the Republic of South Africa did not yet exist.
Four separate entities
: two colonies of the British Empire (The Cape Colony and the Natal Colony) and two Boer Republics (The Orange Free State and the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek).
At the turn of the twentieth century, beginning in 1899, the Boers and the British were at war with one another.
The war = imperialism
and the prospect of vast mineral wealth for the British, and continued independence for the Boers.

The largest part of the war was spent in a phase called the
Guerrilla offensive.
This part of the war happened
after the British managed to take the capitals (Pretoria and Bloemfontein) of the two Republics.
Boer fighters proved
as they continued to fight with hit-and-run tactics.
British to employ a
policy of scorched earth
(destroy any farmholds)
send the women and children off to
concentration camps.
conditions in these camps were so
bad that the Boers surrendered
and led to British conquest in 1902.
2.2 The formation of the Union of SA
Despite all of South Africa now comprising four British colonies, South Africa stabilised sufficiently enough that the colonies could be considered dominions of the British Empire.

On May 31, 1910 the
four colonies
into a single territory called the
Union of South Africa.

Three capitals
were designated in terms of the division of power: Cape Town was designated as the legislative capital (Parliament), Pretoria was designated as the executive capital (Union Buildings, where the President works) and Bloemfontein was designated as the judicial capital (where the court of Appeals was headquartered).

Dominion meant that the Union had control over the internal affairs
of the country and the British Empire still had control over foreign affairs.
2.3 The origins of Segregation
This formation of the Union =
excluded some
races in the participation process.

Segregation was the start of policies of Apartheid.

Policies =
favoured white people

How: segregation assumed that development of the races could best happen separately,
and that
white people were superior
to others due to ‘native inferiority and primitivism’ (Deegan, 2001: 5).

Black labour
was required to mine the mineral wealth of South Africa.

The policy of segregation thus focused more
political and economic power into the hands of white people
Organised black political unity, in the form of the South African Native National Congress (SANNC),
which was later to become the
African National Congress (1923).

Appeal to the British government
to have these segregation policies overturned
= ignored

By the 1940s, however, segregation policies could not keep up with the mass urbanisation(increased economic growth),
in which all races had a part to play.
Segregation in other words, was not really conceivable (Deegan, 2001: 23).
Activity 5: Video on Apartheid

Class discussion:

What is the difference between segregation and apartheid in South-Africa?

Activity 6: Johnny Glegg Song
Analyse this song and write down what it is all about and how it makes you feel?
2.4 Apartheid and the resistance thereof
National Party won = 1948
enforce segregation
This enforced separation of the races was codified in the Group Areas Act = establishment of the homelands
Outcome of this was the resettling of people in other areas (the displacement of black people from
Sophiatown to Soweto,
for example).
It is estimated that between 1955 and 1980 more than 3.8 million people were relocated (Deegan, 2001: 23-25).
Separate everything
Afrikaner nationalism. What this meant was that policies favoured Afrikaners over anyone else, especially in state service
(Deegan, 2001:26).

against these expanded discrimination policies

Instead of appealing to the British to intervene, the now
African National Congress (ANC)
called for acts of public civil disobedience.
This disobedience included
passive forms of resistance
which involved not obeying all the separation laws (for example, not carrying a passbook, or being where one was not supposed to be) and protest.
The ANC also joined with movements such as the South African Indian Congress and South African Congress of Trade Unions amongst others to jointly write the Freedom Charter in 1956 (Deegan, 2001: 27-28).
Not all Africans were in favour of resisting the apartheid laws with the assistance of other races.

Africa belonged to Africans and thus Africans (without the help of Europeans) should fight for their own freedom.

Africanist groups
divorced themselves from the more inclusive movements, (one of these groups being the Pan-African Congress).

Protest was Sharpeville in 1960, where 69people were killed and 186 were wounded by the police.

Increased state regulation and enforcement
The banning of the ANC and the PAC
There was an increase in advocacy for more militant action

Umkhonto we Sizwe (MK), formed in 1961, were dedicated to acts of sabotage against the National Party government. Greater suppression and the arrest and jailing of the more public figures

All movements against the government
were banned
= operated from outside the country and planned acts of sabotage Meanwhile, the people inside the country were also becoming more antagonistic (Showing/feeling active opposition or hostility)
Another case of uprising was that of the youth in the Soweto Uprising of 1976. 575 people were killed and 2389 wounded (Deegan, 2001: 45-50).

CODESA and 1994 elections
FW de Klerk released Nelson Mandela
and unbanned political movements in 1990 so that new reforms could be negotiated. Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA) talks
1991 to 1993.
This period= one of the
as ethnic violence increased significantly across the country.
Eventually, a mutually-agreed-upon political system was negotiated
first truly
democratic elections
were held in South Africa in 1994, with
Nelson Mandela
becoming the first black president.
- Age of imperialism
- Decolonasation and the OAU
- Anglo Boer War
- Formation on the Union of SA
- Segregation
- Apartheid
- CODESA and the 1994 elections
Biwott,J, Chaparadza,R.L & Nel, C. 2013. Human Development Studies A.FPDS011.Midrand Graduate Institute.
Activity 7:

Use your tablet to download the following app:

Use it to cretae
Allen, T. & Thomas, A, (2004), Poverty and Development into the 21st Century. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
Chigunta, F., (2002), The Socio-economic Situation of Youth in Africa: Problems, Prospects and Options. Draft.
De Beer, F., (2000), The community of the poor in: De Beer, F. and Swanepoel, H., Introduction to Development Studies, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp.1-17.
Deegan, H., (2001), The Politics of the New South Africa: Apartheid and After. Pearson Longman. Essex.
Erickson E, (2003), Defeat in Detail. The Ottoman Army in the Balkan, 1912-1913, Praeger Publishers, USA.
Fromkin D, (2004), Europe’s Last Summer. Who Started The Great War in 1914? Alfred A. Knopf, New York.
Genocide convention (2012), ‘Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide’, Available at: http://www.ppu.org.uk/learn/texts/doc_genocide_con.html, Accessed on: 27th September 2012.
Gilbert L. & Selikow T., (2010), Gender and HIV/AIDS in: Ellen Kuhlmann and Ellen Annandale, Handbook of Gender and Healthcare, Palgrave, pp. 189-203.
Haynes J (2008), Development Studies, Short Introductions, Polity Press, United Kingdom.
Heywood, A., (2007), Political Ideologies: An introduction. Palgrave Macmillan. New York.
Human Sciences Research Council, (2008), Citizenship, Violence and Xenophobia in South Africa: Perceptions from South African Communities.
Huffman L. M & Cohen N. P., (March 2004), ‘Occupational Segregation and the Gender Gap in Workplace Authority: National versus Local Labour Markets’, Sociological Forum, Vol. 19, No. 1, p. 121-147.
ICDP, (2012), ‘Comprehensive Theory of Social Development’ http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/comprehensive_theory_of_social_development.
Htm. Accessed: 27th September 2012.
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