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Transcript of Book Report
Arguments Surrounding Technology in Schools
Enthusiasts Arguments for technology
What do we need to do to further incorporate
technology into our schools?
Create interactive learning environments for students.
Increase opportunities for students to learn, do homework, and interact on the Web.
Incorporate "just-in-time learning" and model the use technology in order to effectively find reliable answers to questions.
Allow students to have more control over what they learn and how they learn these concepts.
Incorporate more interactive technologies in the classroom to increase interest levels in students and to foster the usage of immediate feedback.
In order to build a bridge between learning and real world applications, teachers can provide students with access to appropriate, real-world simulations through the use of technology.
Allow students to publish their own works online and reflect on their work.
a Crash Course in The
History of American Education
Technology is Changing the Face of Education
Current Trends in Education
Three Eras of Education
Apprenticeship Era (Pre-Industrial Revolution)
Control of education was with the parents and family. Parents wanted children to follow in their footsteps so they provided their children with the same education they received. This education prepared students for work.
Universal Schooling Era (Industrial Revolution)
To ensure children and immigrants were properly educated citizens, the control of education shifted from the parents to the state. A strong focus on reading, writing, and math as well as socializing children away from parents.
Lifelong Learners Era
Parents and families are now regaining control of education. This movement reflects individuality, student responsibility for education, and the customization of education based on interests.
The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America
Education is Changing
The traditional model of education is changing
Students can decide what they want to learn, when they want to learn it, and how they want to learn it.
Education is occurring more frequently outside of the classroom. Learning and networking can and is occurring on a global level.
Technology is changing the way we work, think, learn, write, read, and communicate as a society.
Where is the field of education going?
Despite changes in technology,schools continue to use 19th century technologies (i.e., blackboard, pencils, books). A new educational system is forming in which students are seeking alternate means of education (i.e., home schooling, learning centers) in alternative locations.
Our schools are going through the Information or Knowledge Revolution, which is fueled by technology.
Despite the influences of technology on the lives of students, technology has become incompatible in the school setting. For fear of creating inequality in the educational system. schools are keeping technology in the margin as opposed to incorporating it into the core academics.
The world is changing and we need to adapt our schools to prepare students for this changing world.
Technology gives us advanced opportunities and tools to educate our students. These tools should be used to reshape the educational process, not stifle it.
Skeptics Arguments against Technology
Technology integration and upkeep can be a costly expense, which makes it difficult for all districts to afford.
Computer work can disrupt whole class or group instruction that is occurring in classrooms. Students working on the computers interfere with quiet learning and studying.
Technology is a distraction in school.
Computers cannot teach social skills such as listening, obey adults, sharing, as well as expressing yourself clearly and with authority.
Computer instruction strays away from and interferes with the pre-established curriculum.
Computers take away from the teachers authority and knowledge in the classroom.
Prior to the 19th century, parents were largely responsible for teaching their children. This occurred in the form of apprenticeships. There was little formal education in America other than one room school houses.
In the early 19th century, Horace Mann led the movement for universal schooling. This placed the responsibility of educating children on the state instead of the family.
The Industrial Revolution moved the universal school movement along as it looked to cut down on juvenile delinquency, diminish child labor, and educate the whole population. This was to ensure the general population was able to make adequate decisions and become productive workers.
The 20th century brought on graded schools (i.e., kindergarten and high school), the "platoon school", teacher certifications, and statistical measurements used to measure student achievement.
Changes to the American school has become increasingly more difficult since the 1920's. This has produced schools out of sync with society.
The 21st century has brought great technological and social changes. These changes have yet to be fully incorporated into our modern schools.
Internet-based curriculum and technological advances in the home have aided in the rise of this movement.
Companies realize the importance of continually needing to educate and train their employees as well as expose them to simulations. The workplace is a next-generation learning environment.
Internet-based distance learning has become interactive at the K-12 and collegiate level. This is known as a virtual schools.
Adults are living longer, more meaningful lives. They are also becoming lifelong learners who participate in recreational education.
These centers were created to fill the gap in the learning system for both adults and children. They often provide a variety of test preparation, tutoring services, and resources to students.
These are the libraries of the future, where people can access the web for a small fee.
Learning is occurring through watching television/videos and computer-based software/video games.
Pedagogy Shifts over time
Pedagogy in this era involved modeling, observation, coaching, and practice.
Universal Schooling Era
Pedagogy in this era involved a small number of teachers lecturing to a large number of students about basic knowledge and skills. This style also involved student's answering questions, doing homework, and taking tests.
Lifelong Learners Era
To support learning, this style of pedagogy involves interactions with both technology and people. This style is a guided pedagogy that involves learners of all ages.
Other Memorable Shifts over Time
Adults carefully assessed the students and corrected them as they performed a task. Assessments were given based on skill and preparedness.
Most learning occurred in the home or domestic industry.
Students were treated as helpers and they learned in the context of the adults around them.
Children formed close bonds with their teachers/family members.
Universal Schooling Era
Standardized assessments emerged within this era to determine if students acquired the necessary skills in school.
Learning occurred purely in schools.
A very strong peer culture was established during this era.
Relationships were eventually built between students and teachers, but the bond is not as strong as the one established in the apprenticeship era.
Lifelong Learners Era
Assessments occurs as learning progresses (much like in the apprenticeship era) and ongoing support is provided to students, as needed.
Education is now moving into many different venues, as long as learning can be accessed via technology, students can learn.
Due to the influences of distance learning and home schooling, peer culture and social interactions are weakening.
Interest based learning has establishing strong mentor-student bonds, but computer based learning provides limited support and warmth to students.
to Gain or not to Gain with Technology
What we may lose
Equality and access to public education
Potential decline in liberal arts education
Social interactions with others
What we may gain:
Increased student engagement in learning
The customization of learning for all students
Access to knowledge, anytime, anywhere
Diminished competition between students and peers
Increased sense of responsibility for their education
Coping With Technological Changes
The Current State
A Close look
at The History of Public Education
Designing a better educational system starts with:
Performance based assessments
To mesh with our accountability based educational system, a set of national credentials could be established and administered by a trained professional via the computer.
Certifications would be tied to the specific learning and professional goals of the students in three main areas academic, technical, or general skills.
Students would decide when they feel confident enough with content to take these exams.
New curriculum designs
Curriculum is centered on student interests and goals, with intertwined academic skills.
Curriculum would focus on the real-world application of skills and problem solving.
Technology is incorporated when teaching difficult academic subjects like scientific investigation, etc.
Video games can be adapted to meet the academic standards of the schools and increase student motivation.
Online discussion boards can be integrated into the classroom.
New approaches to equity in the digital world
Video conferencing and virtual tutoring are two resources that can give all students access to a high quality education.
What does it all Mean?
Parents and teachers can appreciate the range of new skills that children learn when given exposure to technology.
Allow children to tap into their passions by encouraging them to join online communities that share their interests at home.
Parents continue to grow concerned with the lack of reading their children are doing at home. However, exposure to online gaming and content exposes student to a new source of vocabulary in a meaningful context.
The convergence of peer and popular culture poses the biggest threat for schools and parents.
Pressures to change classrooms is coming from outside the classroom (i.e., society, children, and parents)
Recipe for Success
To be successful, political and educational leaders need to carefully consider the changes to our society and mobilize government resources to address the issue.
Rethinking education cannot be done in isolation, rather we must consider the relationship of society, education, and learning.
We must broaden our ideas and conceptions of learning to encompass the new learning environments and modes, as well as the role that technology plays in these new ideas.
Rethink the process of teaching and learning to incorporate technologies and increase student's intrinsic motivation.
Rethink the curriculum to ensure we are teaching our students the skills necessary for success in the 21st century.
Work towards supportive transitions to increase students successes when they transition from school to the adult world.
Establish strong educational leadership that envisions and incorporates necessary changes.
Establish collaboration between state and federal government to make improvements in the schools.
Interesting Points and Summary
The most significant changes in our educational system have occurred a 100 years ago. Since then our educational system has stagnated. In this time there have been numerous modifications and advances in technology, yet these advances have not fully been incorporated into the schools. There is more negativity in response to this process than positivity.
Individuals in our society are becoming life longer learners. Learning is occurring not only in school, but at home, at work, and for recreational purposes, as well. We need to further instill this vision to our students. In order to do this, we need to make their learning worthwhile, relevant, and in sync with their interests.
21st century learners are thriving in environments that are interactive, technology rich, full of choices, and flexible to their needs. This really speaks for the need of customization in learning and in schools.
This text really identifies that the field of education is cyclical . Many of the aspects of the apprenticeship era are becoming relevant again today. We are looking to make learning and assessments relevant to the future goals of our students. We are are also starting to put the responsibility of education back into the hands of the family.
Change is scary, but at some point we have to face the 21st century. In order to remain a competitive nation, we need to prepare our students for the 21st century world. We need to foster their learning styles and come to the realization that technology is not a fad. Technology is so influential in our society that it continues to shape our culture, for better and for worse. As a society we use technology every minute of every hour of every day. Technology is so influential in our lives that we have difficulty functioning when we forget our cell phone at home, if we lose our internet connection, or if we cannot post a status to our Facebook page. Our literacy skills have changed so much over the years that everything from bills to the newspapers has becoming “paperless”. When needing to perform simple math computations at the ATM, or if we get lost when driving, we do not refer to our brain or a map, but to the cell phone in our pocket. We find ourselves incapable of writing an extended response written by hand and if we need to do research, we do not go to the library to check out books, but to our laptop within the comforts of our own home. So why do we view technology as a god sent outside of school, yet behind the brick and mortar of a school building it is viewed as an ugly monster? Despite having access to the world at our fingertips, we expect our students to perform math computations by hand, write extended responses with pen and paper, and read traditional books. This to me seems as useful and relevant as a butter churn and a cassette tape. Our schools are based on 19th century technology which is nothing more than pens, paper, and a chalkboard. The application of these tools are working to prepare students for life before the before computer era, not for a competitive life in the year 2013.
We live in modern, fast paced world filled with ego-centrism and instant gratification. Our pedagogy and curriculum should highlight and be designed around the technologies students see in their daily lives or in the work force. Outdated technology and instructional strategies are going to be a further deterrent for the youth of our country. Much like we would not expect a farmer to plow a field by hand, we should not expect our students to perform menial tasks when the world is at their fingertips. In order to unleash critical thinking and problem solving, we need to set the bar higher in our classrooms. Technology unlocks the door to motivation, collaboration, customization, and integration. We cannot continue to keep this door locked or we will set our students up for failure.