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The Roman Civilization

Ancient Rome from about 700 B.C. (B.C.E.) to 500 A.D. (C.E.) in terms of its impact on Western civilization

Darryl P Eley

on 1 March 2012

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Transcript of The Roman Civilization

The Romans
The city of Rome, located in the middle of the Italian peninsula, was able to extend its influence over the
entire Mediterranean Basin.
located on the Tiber River
• Rome: Centrally located in the Mediterranean Basin and distant
from eastern Mediterranean powers
• Italian Peninsula
• Alps: offered Protection
• Mediterranean Sea: Protection, seaborne commerce
Roman Government

•The next class of people was the Plebeians which consisted of farmers, merchants, and traders. They made up the majority of the population.
•The lowest class was Slaves. Slavery in the Roman republic was not based on race; it was people from conquered lands
Features of the Representative Democracy (Respublica)
In a representative Democracy, elected representatives are chosen by the citizens to make decisions in Government
• There were two Consuls (similar to our president) who were elected Senators. They were elected for one year terms and they could Veto each other position. They supervised the government and the military.
• There were two governing bodies or legislatures:
o The Senate, was the most powerful, had 300 patrician men. They served for life and made laws that governed the Republic.
o The Assemblies had a military and nonmilitary assembly they elected judges and made key decision on a local level
• The Tribunes were the governing body for the Plebeians. Three men would make decisions for the middle class they were eventually elected to consuls and even senators.
• The Twelve Tables or Roman Laws were posted in the Forum (Roman market place) after the Plebeians protest the publication of the laws

•Most conquered people were allowed to marry Romans and become partial citizens
•Conquered paid taxes, supplied soldiers, and acknowledge leadership in exchange they were allowed to keep their customs, money, and local governments.
Social Structure of the Roman Republic
The Roman Republic (representative government) had three classes of people.
•The Patrician class was the powerful nobility and the upper-class of landowners.
Laws of Citizenship
Citizenship in the Roman Republic were given to men and some foreigners
•In the Roman Republic Patrician and Plebeian men were citizens
Roman mythology, like Greek mythology, was based upon a
polytheistic religion that was important to culture, politics, and art.
Based on the Greek polytheistic
Explanations of natural phenomena,
human qualities, and life events
Roman Mythology
Roman gods and goddesses
• Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Diana,
Minerva, and Venus
Many of Western civilization’s
symbols, metaphors, words, and
idealized images come from ancient
Roman mythology.
Power over the Sky and other gods
Power over the moon, forest and women in child birth
(cc) image by anemoneprojectors on Flickr
What does the Earth and a Mercury thermometer have in common?
Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus
VA state symbol where the goddess virtue has defeated a dictator
Neptune at Va-beach
The Punic War
264 B.C.E
146 B.C.E.
218 B.C.E.
Rome was involved in three wars with Carthage from 264 B.C.E. to 146 B.C.E. The motive for the wars was competition for trade on the Mediterranean Sea
Punic Wars: Rome vs. Carthage
(264–146 B.C. [B.C.E.])
• Rome and Carthage were in
competition for trade.
• Hannibal invaded the Italian
• Three wars resulted in Roman
victory, the destruction of Carthage,
and expanded trade and wealth for
In the First Punic War, Rome defeated Carthage and won the island of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardina.
The war lasted 23 years
Rome made carthage pay out their whole treasury
The First Punic War
The Second Punic War
Hannibal of Cathage led a suprise attack against Rome in 218 B.C.E. to repay them for the first Punic war
Hannibal is known for leading war elephants across the alps mts (30 stated 1survivied
Carthage won many battles against the Romans
Rome attacked Carthage causing Hannibal to return home to defend his home
Rome won and gained control of all of Carthage's land out side of Africa
The third Punic War begin with Roman's repaying Carthage for the first two wars. Cato a Senator would end all of his speeches with "Carthage must be destroyed"
Roman soldiers burned Carthage down destroying many of the city
Most of the people were taken as slaves
The Romans sowed or planted salt into the ground so that nothing would grow in Carthage
The Third Punic War
After the victory over Carthage in the Punic Wars, Rome was able, over the next 100 years, to dominate the
Mediterranean basin, leading to the diffusion of Roman culture.
Expansion of Rome
After the Punic war Rome expanded across the Mediterranean Africa, Asia,Europe, including the Hellenistic world of the Eastern Mediterranean)
Western Europe (Gaul, British Isles)
Peoples they conquered intergrated Latin into their language
Decline of the Roman Republic
The changing of economic and social conditions caused civil wars in the Roman Republic. These conflicts eventually lead to the fall of the Roman Republic and the Rise of the Roman Empire.
Seven Reasons for the Decline of the Roman Republic
Patrician used slaves for labor on their farms which in turn caused high unemployment for Plebians
Unemployed Plebians sold their lands and moved to the cities causing overcrowding
Patricians misused their wealth, which lead to greed and corruption
There became a great gap between the rich and the poor which lead to riots and frustrations
Conflicts between the Senate and Popular political leaders lead to civil war
Roman armies were loyal to their commanders rather than the senators and civil leaders
Prices for food and products (inflation) increased; causing the Roman currency (money) to decline.
Origins of Imperial Rome
First Triumvirate: three powerful Patricians Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Marcus Crassus, join together in 61 B.C.E. to bring order to Rome.
Julius Caesar and Pompey were very important military and political leaders. Pompey became fearful of Julius Caesar and his army. Pompey convinced the Senate to order Caesar to disband his army but he disobeyed by bringing his army to Rome.
Caesar forced the Senate to declare him dictator: As dictator he made many reforms
gave land to the poor
Created Jobs
The Senate fearing that he make himself king for life assassinated Julius Caesar on March 15
This caused a great civil War
The Second Triumvirate: After the death of Julius Caesar a second triumvirate was formed to bring order and to find the killers of Julius Caesar

The second triumvirate consisted of Octavian, nephew of Julius Caesar, Marc Antony and Marcus Lepidus.
Octavian and Marc Antony struggled for power during the second triumvirate. Octivian defeated Marc Antony and was crowned the first emperor of Rome.
Given the title Exalted one or Augustus
made government stronger and more stable
unified the empire using the military and imperial authority
made reforms in Roman Economy and social classes
Ushered in the Pax Roman or Roman Peace
The Pax Romana or Roman Peace
When Octivian or Caesar Augustus came to power he began a new era of peace and prosperity called the Pax Romana
Two centuries of peace and prosperity under imperial rule
Expansion and solidification of the Roman Empire, particularly in the Near East
Brought social, political and Economic changes to the empire
Social Impact of the Pax Romana
Stability or equality among Social Classes
Increased emphasis on the Family (dad's in control)
Political impact of the Pax Romana
Civil Service Test ( jobs based on Talent not class; like the Chinese)
Uniform or one rule of law for all provinces and the law of innocent until proven guilty
Economic impact of the Pax Romana
Established uniform system of money, which helped to expand trade
• Guaranteed safe travel and trade on Roman roads
• Promoted prosperity and stability
Contributions of the Roman Empire
The Romans, like the Greeks influenced Western Civilization through its Art, Architecture, technology, Science, Medicine, Language, Literature, religion, and Law.
Arts and Architecture
The Romans built large buildings that became the model for many buildings in our culture. The Romans:
Used concrete
developed domes
built the Pantheon (temple for all gods)
built the Colosseum
built the Forum
In Technology Romans built:
the first engineered road
The first Arches
The first Aqueducts (tunnels that carry water)
In Science Achievements of Ptolemy influenced Western Civilization by:
Ptolemy was an Astronomer and Mathematician
The Romans promoted Medicine or the emphases on public health
Public baths
Roman doctors were influence by Greek medicine
clean water from aqueducts
The Roman language of latin was:
bases of the Romance languages of French, Spanish and Italian
Language of the catholic church
Roman literature was very simular to Greek Literature. The Roman Poet Virgil used the story of Troy in his poem called the Aeneid.
Religion: Romans used mythology at first but
adopted Christianty as the
imperial religion
Law: The principle of “innocent until
proven guilty” (from the Twelve
Decline of the Western Roman Empire
The Roman empire began to decline for many of the same reasons as the Roman Republic. The reasons came from inside and outside problems
Geographic Size: the Empire was too big to defend and to govern. transportation and communication took a very long time.
Economic Problems: High prices along with heavier taxes made life very hard for the middle class and farmers. The devaluation of Roman money caused the economy to slow
Military Problems: The Roman military had become undiscipline (not well trained) The military also had to hire paid soldiers to make up for the lack in the regular army.
Moral Decay: In the later years of the Empire people valued luxury over public duty. Family values and morals began to decline with peoples love for their country.
Political problems: The empire was plagued with bad emperors who were self centered. Many of them were overthrown by people who to control the government. People lost faith in the government
Invasions: Rome was unable to defend its borders in the laters years. Germanic people crossed the borders to escape the nomadic mongals of Asia. Other invaders took over Britain, France, Spain, Gaul and Rome in 476 C.E.
On a sheet of paper explain how the large size of the Roman Empire made it hard to defend?
Division of the Roman Empire
The Roman empire began to experience political, economic and Social problems after the Pax Romana
Emperor Diocletian brought order to the Roman Empire by dividing the Empire into Western and Eastern Roman Empire. He shared his power with Maximilian.
In 312 C.E. Constantine becomes emperor and makes two important changes to the empire
He ordered the toleration of Christianity
He set up a new capital in Byzantium called Constantinople

the Eastern empire to become stronger but the Western Empire became pleagued with attacks from Germanic peoples and social problems inside
In 378 C.E. Rome was defeated and the Roman emperor was forced out in 476 C.E. by a Germanic leader.
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