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Transcript of Mexican Independence
Today Mexican Independence Day is a major celebration in Mexico and is bigger than Cinco de Mayo. It is celebrated with a fiesta (party). The celebration begins on September 15 (the eve of Independence Day) where crowds of people gather in the zocalos (town meeting place) of cities, towns, and villages. In Mexico City a huge square is decorated with flags, flowers and lights of red, white, and green. People sell confetti, whistles, horns, paper-machete helmets, and toys in the colors of red, white and green. There is also plenty of feasting! When the clock strikes eleven o'clock the crowd gets silent. On the last strike of eleven the president of Mexico steps out on the palace balcony, and rings the historic liberty bell that Father Hidalgo rang to call the people. Then the president gives the Grito de Delores. He shouts "Viva Mexico" "Viva la independencia" and the crowd echoes back. People do this at the same time all across Mexico. While the crowd says this they fill the air with confetti, streamers and hoopla. Castillos explode in showers of red, white, and green.
2011 was the year of the Bicentennial Celebrations in Mexico. This wonderful country commemorated 200 years of Independence from Spanish rule and 100 years of its Revolution that began in 1910 and toppled dictator Porfirio Diaz. by Sophia Shuai and Mona Shafiq Mexican Independence Background Information The Mexican Leaders: Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, José María Morelos, Francisco Javier Mina, Vicente Guerrero, and Agustín de Iturbide. "Our Leader": Miguel Hidago He issued the famous "Cry of Dolores" in September 15, 1810. It wasn't long till he was able to assemble an army. The idea for Mexican Independence had already started to grow in the Spanish colonies, dating back to the conquest of the Aztec empire. Martín Cortés led a revolt against the Spanish government in order to eliminate the special privileges of the conquistadors. The idea continued to grow even after the Spanish forces had crushed most of the early rebellions. The call for independence from Spain not only appealed to the Creoles, but also the Native Americans, mestizos, free blacks, and mulattos. The political oppression of Spain wasn’t solely to blame, it was also because of the problems that the lower class had to face: hunger, poverty, high taxes, and lack of land. The Spanish Leaders: Francisco Javier Venegas, Ignacio Elizondo, Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, Félix María Calleja del Rey, Francisco Novella Azabal Pérez y Sicardo, Juan O'Donojú, Ciriaco del Llano, José Gabriel de Armijo, José Antonio Andrade, and Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera First stage: 1810-1811
Organizational phrase: 1811-1815 The revolution started in 1810, spurred by the Cry of Dolores by Miguel Hidalgo. What made this upset feeling rise and be acknowledged was because of the political and economic changes in Europe and its American colonies. The French and Napoleonic wars caused the Spanish to be distracted from its colonies; the colonies for this reason had a desire to have local government. He demanded that the people take up arms and fight to free their nation. Hidalgo organized meetings with the townspeople, and taught the farmers techniques about the land. After his conspiracy was found out, Hidalgo's army needed to move quickly. The morning of the 16th, Hidalgo rang the church bells. He told them the reason for the ringing of the bells, and how the Mexicans had to fight for their independence. Most agreed, and joined Hidalgo, he had around 600 men, within a couple of minutes. "Our Leader": Miguel Hidago Hidalgo played a role by observing how poor people were being treated, he also personally hurt by the high spanish taxes. Review... and add some details: Let's dig deeper Around September 16, 1810 - September 27, 1821 started out as a spur of emotions from the lower class rebellion. Later on, this became an actual movement -- the Mexican Independence. The political, economic, and social- economis changes in Europe and its American colonies of the late 18th and 19th century. Embraced the ideas of both the American and French Revolution. The Political Causes Napoleon’s invasion of Spain in 1807 - 1808 The people who ran Spain's government: The Habsburg Empire
Napolean and his brother, Joseph Bonaparte Poltical Causes: Lets go back to the "Rulers" The Habsburg empire Did not have money (a.k.a financial crisis)
Ended around 1700s and also ended with the death of King Charles II. The House of Bourbon Empire started around November 1, 1700 (after the death of King Charles II)
This empire was founded by Philips V (also known as Duke of Anjou)
They divide Spain into 200 colonies with 12 leaders and also divided monopolies for certain trade. By dividing monopolies in Spain, it made the Spanish crown richer and there income rose from 3.2 million in 1700 to 27 million in 1804 ( by then, the currency was pesos).
Reforms made at by the Bourbons, benefitted the Spanish colony, la Nueva Espana, and soon, more people were moving from Spain to the colonies (Peninsulars).
After Philips was Ferdinand VII who came to power in 1808. Joseph Bonaparte He was out on the throne after Ferinand VII by Napoleon.
With the Spanish monarchy gone the creoles began to believe that they should rule themselves; however, the peninsulars disagreed. Economic Causes There were many debts that Spain owed to Europe, which was being payed through silver.
During Philips's of the Bourbons rule, La Nueve Espana became the most wealthiest colony; therefore causing the spaniards to move from Spain and to the colony in order to benefit. These people are called the Peninsulars. La Nueva Espana produced 75% of the products in Spain, but very little went back to the colonies. The Peninsulars in La Nueva espana was becoming richer due to many of the reforms, which was most benefitting towards them and, also, at the expense of the creoles. The peninsulars began to take the jobs of the creoles, as leaders in the community.
In la Nueva Espana:
Peninsulars were on top because of the class system.
Peninsulars benefitted the most in the colony.
On the lower bottom of the class system were the Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes, and African slaves. The people on the bottom of the class system made very litte money and the lower class had to face: hunger, poverty, high taxes, and lack of land. In 1784 over 300,000 Mexicans died of famine or malnourishment
The creoles did very well economically they were often treated as second class citizens in their own country. They wanted greater control After this the creoles believed that no peaceful solutions would occur. In the mid-1800s every major city in la Nueva Espana began to form secret societies opposing the government.in the future of New Spain and some sort of social equality.
In 1804 the church began to take out mortgages, destroying some of the creoles financially. Tensions began to rise, which causes King Ferdinand VII to come to the throne; however, Napoleon Bonaparte then put his brother Joseph Bonaparte to the throne. This gave creoles a chance and a belief that they should rule themselves, local government, but the Peninsulars disagreed. Those who thought this and wanted reforms were then arrested by the new government and deported. Social-Economic Causes Effects Remember Miguel Hidalgo?
He demanded that the people take up arms and fight to free their nation.
Mexicans were already for this because they were unhappy with increased taxes.
Wrote the "Grito de Delores" on the night of September 15, 1810 and carried onto September 16, 1810. This signified the start of the independence movement. Hidalgo rang the church bells, signifying that they need to unite and fight for their independence. It was quickly responded by thousands, and soon, Hidalgo was able to raise a huge army (600 men joined in a few minutes and from there, rapidily grew to about 80,000 men).
The support among Mexicans for the Mexican Independence became divided between independentists, autonomists and royalists. For instance,
The rebels had many success in the period 1815- 1820, but it was not “notable”. The reason why is because the middle classes preferred peace over warfare. Hidalgo organized meetings with the townspeople, and taught the farmers techniques about the land.
"My children: a new dispensation comes to us today. Will you receive it? Will you free yourselves? Will you recover the lands stolen three hundred years ago from your forefathers by the hated Spaniards? We must act at once… Will you defend your religion and your rights as true patriots? Long live our Lady of Guadalupe! Death to bad government! Death to the gachupines!'" "Grito de Delores" The Cry of Dolores marked the beginning of the long and bloody Mexican War of Independence, which would not conclude until 1821. Millions were killed or displaced in this long conflict. During his trial, Hidalgo seemed to understand what he had wrought and recanted his actions, perhaps foreseeing the bloodbath to come. About 80,000 joined Hidalgo’s army, but they weren’t trained nor disciplined, and chaos soon appeared. The Peninsulares and Creoles saw this happening and took advantage of it, they used both the royal and local army to defeat Hidalgo's warriors. Hidalgo was captured and executed in 1811. In January of 1811, the Spanish troops fought the Battle of the Bridge of Calderón and defeated the insurgent army, the rebels fled towards the United States-Mexican border. The rebels were intercepted by the Spanish army and Hidalgo y Costilla and the rest of his soldiers were caught in Jalisco. He faced court trial of the Inquisition and found guilty of treason. He was executed by firing a squad in Chihuahua, on July 31, 1811. His body was mutilated, and his head was displayed in Guanajuato as a warning to the remaining rebels.” After Hidalgo’s execution, the leadership of the revolutionary army was assumed by José María Morelos. There wasn’t an exact involvement of foreign intervention in Mexico. But after the revolution a lot of the influence was from the U.S. James Monroe created the Monroe Doctrine; declaring no country was allowed to invade the Western hemisphere. This didn’t just imply towards Mexico, but Mexico nonetheless was a part of it. This Doctrine basically stated that the United States would be the protector of Independent Western nations. Foreign Intervention What about today? “Long Live Ferdinand VII! Long Live America! Long Live Religion! and Death to Bad Government!”
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