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Sexual Addiction, Parphilia, and Child Pornography

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Lindsey Rouse

on 25 April 2014

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Transcript of Sexual Addiction, Parphilia, and Child Pornography

Sexual Addiction, Paraphilias, and Child Pornography
By: Heather Smith

Sexual Addiction
Sexual Addiction
Diagnostic Determination:
Psychiatrists commonly use the DSM(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), created by the American Psychiatric Association, to help with the diagnosis.
Some criteria that is used to aide in diagnosis is the following:
-recurrent failure to resist impulses to engage in extreme acts of lewd sex.
-persistent desire of unsuccessful efforts to stop, reduce, or control those behaviors.
-continuation of behavior despite knowledge of consequences.
-Need to increase the intensity, frequency, or risk of behaviors.
-resorting to distress, anxiety, restlessness, or violence if unable to engage in behaviors.

Conclusion

Sexual Addiction
Sexual addictions encompass an array of disorders. Sexual addiction is the phenomenon in which people cannot manage their sexual behavior. The individual becomes obsessed with sexual thoughts-thoughts that tend to interfere with their ability to work properly, have healthy relationships, and enjoy everyday activities.
DSM-IV Classification: The proposed diagnosis of sexual addiction does not fit the actual psychiatric diagnosis because of a lack of substantial empirical evidence.
Paraphilias
Causes and Incidence
-Incidence is unknown
-No known scientific causes
-Psychoanalysts theorize that an individual with a paraphilia is repeating or reverting to a sexual habit that arose early in life.
-Behaviorists suggest paraphilia begins through conditioning.
-Theories have suggested testosterone imbalances, atypical brain development, and also early childhood abuse.

Paraphilias
Signs and Symptoms(partial list)
-Exhibitionism: exposure of one's genitals to an unsuspecting stranger.
-Fetishism: the use of nonliving objects.
-Frotteurism: touching and rubbing against a nonconsenting person.
-Pedophilia: recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasises, sexual urges, or behaviors involving sexual activity with a child.
-Sexual masochism: recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving the at of being humiliated, beaten, bound, or otherwise made to suffer. (Fifty Shades of Grey)
Sexual Addiction
Medical Treatment
-Recovery groups such as SAA(Sex Addicts Anonymous) or SCA(Sexual Compulsives Anonymous)
-Cognitive Behavior Therapy(CBT) to assist in identifying the triggers for the addiction.
-Seroetoninergic (SSRI) medications that are often used to treat depressive and anxiety disorders and mood stabilizers that are used to treat bipolar disorder have been found to decrease the compulsive urges associated with sexual addictions for some sufferers. Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft), citalopram (Celexa), fluvoxamine (Luvox), and escitalopram (Lexapro).
Dr. Gail Saltz on Sexual Addiction
Paraphilias
Definition
: A paraphilia is a condition in which a person's sexual arousal and gratification depend on fantasizing about and engaging in sexual behavior that is atypical and extreme.
DSM-IV diagnostic criteria(from the American Psychiatric Association):
A-recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving 1) nonhuman objects, 2) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or one's partner, or 3) children or other nonconsenting persons, that occur over a period of at least 6 months. B- clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.
Causes and Incidence
-No identifiable cases
-Researchers have found that lesions on the medial prefrontal cortex result in compulsive sexual behavior.
-Frequently sufferers come from dysfunctional families or have experienced some sort of trauma earlier in life.
-The incidence is unknown
Signs and Symptoms
Some behaviors may include:
-compulsive self-stimulation
-multiple affairs
-multiple sexual partners
-persistent use of pornography
-cybersex
-using prostitutes
-exhibitionism
-molestation
-rape
-denial/lack of control
Paraphilias
Diagnosis and Treatment
Psychiatrists commonly use the DSM(Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), created by the American Psychiatric Association, to help with the diagnosis
-Treatment approaches include traditional psychoanalysis, hypnosis, and behavior therapy techniques.
-Hormone replacement therapy
Child pornography is the visual representation of minors under the age of 18 engaged in sexual activity or the visual representation of minors engaging in lewd or erotic behavior designed to arouse the viewer's sexual interest. Some sexual disorders include the use of child pornography.
Child Pornography
Effects of these disorders
There are a number of potentially devastating complications of sexual addiction. Possible medical complications include contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including the potentially fatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis B or C. Examples of occupational consequences include decreased work performance or attendance due to the preoccupation with the addiction. If the behaviors result in unwanted sexual advances on others, legal problems like sexual harassment or rape perpetration may result. Individuals whose sexual addiction involves attraction to minors might engage in child molestation.

Depending on the financial demands of the addiction, the sufferer of a sexual addiction may incur a great deal of debt or engage in illegal or otherwise unsafe activity associated with the behavior. Emotionally, individuals with a sexual addiction are at risk for terrible guilt and shame at their actions and the secrecy involved. They are also more likely to experience broken relationships, separation, divorce, and the many challenges involved.

Sources: "The Paraphilic and Hypersexual Disorders: An Overview" November 2001, Journal of Psychiatric Practice.
www.psychologytoday.com
Foundations of Nursing Third Edition by Lois White, Gena Duncan , and Wendy Baumle
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