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Leadership & Communication - Part II
Transcript of Leadership & Communication - Part II
Behavioral contracts – write it down!
Cognitive strategies – goal setting, self talk
Stimulus control – gym bag by the front door
Relapse prevention training John Wooden study (Tharp & Gallimore, 1976)
Instruction most common behavior
Praise rarely used – but is this a good thing?
Most extensive coaching behavior research is by Smith & Smoll et al.
Found that praise was critical in youth contexts
CBAS – Coach Behavior Assessment System
Instruction may be more important than praise
Horn (1985) study of junior high softball players
Higher critical FB higher PC Results:
dramatic increase in attendance at each phase (45%, 63%, and 100% improvement)
same concept used for work output, and results also dramatic (27% increase)
Why did it work? Problem: Age-group swimmers w/ poor attendance at practices
Solution: created attendance board displayed prominently on wall w/ everyone’s name
Phases using behavior modification:
phase 1 - check mark for coming to practice
phase 2 - check mark for coming on time
phase 3 - show up on time & swim entire practice Punishment can arouse fear of failure:
results in poor performance
causes tentativeness, afraid of making a mistake
Punishment can act as a reinforcer:
draws attention to action
can be a way of getting attention
Punishment can hinder skill learning:
creates an unpleasant, aversive learning environment
undesirable behaviors merely suppressed Basic principles of reinforcement:
If the consequence of doing something is positive, we tend to repeat the behavior in order to receive more positive consequences.
If the consequence of doing something is negative, we tend not to repeat the behavior in order to avoid more negative consequences.
Reinforcement is used for behavior modification Functions of Feedback:
Informational - corrective movements
Motivational - increase effort and persistence through incentives
Reinforcement - strengthens habits through rewards
BUT feedback must always be appropriate and contingent if it is to be constructive Feedback - information an individual receives about behavior or the consequences of behavior
Types of feedback:
Intrinsic - inherent in the movement itself
visual, auditory, kinesthetic
Augmented - provided by an observer
knowledge of performance (movement patterns)
knowledge of results (splits, gymnastics score) Making reinforcement most effective:
choose most effective reinforcers for context
reinforce immediately and be sincere
reinforce effort, instruct while reinforcing
Use shaping to help an individual learn a skill
Use sparingly and carefully Positive approach = reinforcement
increases likelihood that behavior will occur
can be positive (presenting something positive) or negative (removing something negative)
Shaping – reinforcing successive approximations of a behavior
Negative approach = punishment
decreases likelihood that a behavior will occur
should be used sparingly and with caution (e.g., to extinguish dangerous behaviors) Structuring environment through systematic use of reinforcement
Helps individuals stay task-focused and motivated during training
Research supports it’s effectiveness in:
teaching new skills & increasing productivity
decreasing technique errors and behavioral problems
Not so effective for skill maintenance or enhancement
Public display a key factor praise and approval of coaches?
served as a motivational function?
peer pressure, public recognition? Communication via