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Psychology for Sports Performance

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Chris Softley

on 21 September 2018

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Transcript of Psychology for Sports Performance

Theories of Personality
Marten's Schematic View
The Psychodynamic Theory
Trait Theory
Situational Approach
Interactional Approach
Psychology for Sports Performance

Know the effect of personality and motivation on sports performance.
Motivation
Effects on sports performance
The Psychodynamic Theory
Effects of motivation on sports performance
P1 - Define personality and how it affects sports performance

P2 - Describe motivation and how it affects sports performance

M1 - Explain the effects of personality and motivation on sports performance

D1 - Evaluate the effects of personality and motivation on sports performance
Trait Theory
Situational Approach
Marten's Schematic View
Interactional View
Personality is seen as having three different levels:
Psychological Core
Typical responses
Role-related behaviour
Psychological Core
'The real you'
Contains your beliefs, values, attitudes and interests
These are seen as constant/stable
Typical Responses
Usual ways you respond to the world around you or different situations you find yourself in
Think how you react to a foul?
Think how you react when meeting someone for the first time?
Think how you react to meeting a new team for the first time? or a new coach?
Role-related behaviour
Determined by your circumstances you find yourself in
Most changeable aspect of personality
Personality changes as your perception of your environment changes

In what situations do you find your personality changing to the circumstance you find yourself in?
Made up of conscious and unconscious parts
ID - Instinctive Drive
Part of your personality that is unconscious
Makes you do certain things without thinking
Large levels of anxiety causing muscles to automatically freeze
Ego
Conscious part
Athlete has complete control over their personality
Super Ego
Your moral conscience
Footballer worried about missing a penalty in the world cup final because they are scared of missing
Psychodynamic approach tries to understand the individual as a whole
Often ignored in sport due to focusing on the reasons for behaviour that comes from within the individual
Tends to ignore the athletes environment
However it does help us to understand that not all behaviour is under the conscious control of athletes
Suggests that individuals have certain characteristics that will partly determine how they behave
Traits are relatively stable
Eysenck and Cattell argued that traits were mainly inherited
Two main dimensions of personality:
an introversion-extroversion dimension
a stable-neurotic dimension
Introverts
Do not actively seek excitement
Rather be in calm environments
Prefer tasks that require concentration and dislike the unexpected
Extroverts
Tend to become bored quickly
Poor at tasks that require a lot of concentration
Seek change and excitement
Less responsive to pain
Tend to be more successful in sporting environments due to coping with competitiveness and distracting situations better than introverts
Stable Individuals
Tend to be more easy going
Even tempered
Neurotic (Unstable) People
Tend to be more:
Restless
Excitable
Anxious
Highly aroused
Conclusion:
Trait views are too simplistic
Personality alone cannot predict success in a sporting environment
However, it can help explain why individuals choose certain sports
Behavior is dependent on your situation or environment
Argues that this is far more important than traits
Think of an introvert playing football:
Display characteristics such as tolerance and shyness
But will be physical and strong on a football pitch showing aggression
Think of Steven Gerrard - playing for Liverpool and being a pundit on ITV!!
Social Learning Theory (Bandura, 1977)
Suggests that personality is:
Not stable
Changes as a result of experiences of different social situations
Theory suggests that individuals learn in sporting situations through two processes:
Modeling
Reinforcement
Modelling
Model themselves on people they can relate to
Individuals in the same sport of the same gender
The individual will observe the athletes behaviour and will copy it
Reinforcement
If an individuals behaviour is reinforced or rewarded, it is likely that behaviour will be repeated
Bandura (1977) Social Learning Theory
Identified 4 main stages of observational learning that demonstrates how modeling influences personality and behaviour.
Attention
To learn through observation
Must have respect of admiration for the model they are observing
This will depend on their status
Retention
Must be able to retain the observed skill or behaviour in their memory
Can recall it when needed
Motor reproduction
Must be able to physically perform the task
Athletes need time to practice the skill to learn how it should be performed
Motivational response
Unless the athlete is motivated, they will not go through the first three stages of modelling
Motivation depends on the amount of reinforcement (praise, feedback etc)
The perceived status of the model and importance of the task is also crucial
To predict behaviour in a sporting situation, you need to consider how the situation and personality traits link and work together
The theory suggests:
When situational factors are strong (Penalty shootout in the world cup final)
They are more likely to predict behaviour than personality traits
The situation takes over the natural personality
Think Zinedine Zidane - world cup final
The athlete who tends to be quite and shy in an everyday situation is likely to run towards an ecstatic crowd screaming if he scores the winning penalty
Personality Types
Personality traits can be grouped under two headings:
Type A
Type B
Type A
Lack patience
Competitive
High desire to achieve goals
Always rush to complete activities
Happily multi-task under time constraints
Lack tolerance towards others
Experience higher levels of anxiety
Type B
More tolerant towards others
More relaxed
Reflective
Experience lower levels of anxiety
Display higher levels of imagination/creativity
No direct link between personality type and successful sporting performance
Some research suggests that certain personality types may be more attracted to certain sports
But there is little to say that your personality will make you a better athlete
Introverts: Drawn to individual sports (long distance running)
Extroverts: Drawn to team- and action-orientated sports - due to the ever changing and unexpected environments which keeps them interested
Athletes vs Non-athletes and individual vs team sport
Athletes who take part in teams sports tend to be more extroverted
Athletes who take part in individual sports tend to be more introverted
You must consider the sport athletes play before seeing the differences between athletes and non-athletes

What does research say?
Athletes want to continually improve
will look at themselves first to see how they performed rather than blaming team mates
Exercise improves brain functioning and reduce negative feelings
Most athletes have higher self-esteem
Elite vs non-elite athletes
It was previously thought that successful athletes display lower levels of depression, fatigue, confusion and anger.
However, this was based on a small sample of athletes
More recent research shows that personality accounts for less than 1% of the performance variation
Think of how many top athletes have had depression recently

This will link to athlete and non-athletes but what do you think the difference will be for elite vs non-elite?
Type A versus Type B
Type A are more likely than type B personalities to continue participating in sport when the situation becomes unfavorable or when they are not motivated to take part
Why do you think this is?
Definition:
the direction and the intensity of your effort
Sport Specific Definition:
The tendency of an individual or team to begin and then carry on with the activities relating to their sport
Two types of motivation
:
Intrinsic
Extrinsic
Intrinsic motivation
Participating in an activity without an external reward
Or without the primary motivation being the achievement of some form of external reward
Participates in sport for enjoyment
Sayings such as 'play for fun' or 'because it makes me feel good'
Three parts of intrinsic motivation:
Motivated by accomplishments:
occurs when athletes wish to increase their level of skill to get a sense of accomplishment
Motivated by stimulation:
this refers to seeking an 'adrenaline rush' or extreme excitement
Motivated by knowledge:
being curious about your own performance, wanting to know more about it and having a desire to develop new techniques or skills to benefit performance
Extrinsic motivation
An individual behaves like they do because of some form of external mechanism
Come through the use of tangible (you can touch = cups, money) and intangible (you can not touch = praise/stats) rewards
For extrinsic motivation to be effective, rewards need to be used effectively
This should mean that rewards should not be used frequently - it will be of little value
Extrinsic motivation can reduce (controlling the athlete) or increase (used to provide feedback) intrinsic motivation
This original extrinsic motivator will determine whether it benefits or hinders intrinsic motivation
Achievement Motivation Theory (Atkinson, 1964)
Comes from the individual's personality
It is the individuals motivation for success
It is the drive the athletes have to keep going when there has been set backs or when they fail
Atkinson grouped individuals into two categories:
Need to achieve (Nach)
Need to avoid failure (Naf)
Everyone has aspects of Nach or Naf, but it is the difference between the two motives that makes up somebody's achievement motivation
Attribution Theory (Weiner)
How people explain success or failure
Helps understand an athletes action and motivations
Attribution:
the reason you give to explain the outcome of an event

Attributions can fall into the following categories:
Stability: is the reason permanent or unstable?
Causality: is it something that comes from an external or internal factor?
Control: is it under your control?

Think of some different reasons you have heard!!!

Positive
Motivated to train and work hard will improve performance
Athletes, Coaches, managers and support staff can help this
It will only help if the individual does not experience any negative effects
Negative
Being over-motivated can cause problems
Pressure can cause athletes to train more and more
Over-motivation can lead to:
Over-training
- training under an excessive training load, which they can not cope with
Staleness
- unable to maintain a previous performance level/performance levels decrease significantly. Other signs are mood swings and depression
Burnout
- trying to meet training and competition demands and because they are unsuccessful they train harder and harder. Can lead to athlete wanting to finish participating in the sport they enjoyed

Think what happens to young footballers!!
Future expectations of success and failure
Linked to the attribution theory (the reason you give)
If you attribute to stable causes, you are more likely to have expectations of future success
If you attribute to unstable causes (luck), you are more likely to have expectations of future failure
Developing a motivation climate
The environment the athlete finds themselves in and how that affects their motivation positively or negatively
Motivational climate that focuses on mastery of tasks:
athletes receive positive reinforcement
greater emphasis on teamwork and cooperation
helps develop motivation through improving the athlete's attitudes, effort and learning techniques
Motivational climate that focuses on the outcome:
Punished if they make mistakes
Only the highest ability receiving attention
Leads to less effort and persistence from athletes
Failure often attributed to lack of ability

The
TARGET
technique helps develop an effective motivational climate:
Tasks:
have a range of tasks that require the athlete to actively participate in learning and decision-making
Authority:
give athletes the authority over monitoring and evaluating their own learning and decision-making
Reward:
use rewards that focus on the individual improvement rather than comparing to other athletes
Grouping:
give the athletes the opportunity to work in groups so they can develop skills in a group based activity
Evaluation:
focus on the athletes effort and improvement
Timing:
timing activities effectively so that all of the above conditions can interact effectively

Starter.....
Checking for prior knowledge?
Who will be the champion?
Who already has good knowledge?

That is personality over with......
Who is the champion now?
Have you improved?
Now who is the class champion?
Starter.....
In pairs not using your notes write as much as you can about the theories we have covered so far about personality!
M______S________V___
P___________C T_____
T____ T_____
S__________A_______
Can you work out the name of the next theory?
I__________AL APP_____
1 minute challenge......
Write a definition of personality!
Think of the different personalities that we have within this room!
Personality is.....
"the combination of characteristics or qualities that form an individuals distinctive character"
(https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/personality)
Starter - Reading Task
How do these two videos make you feel?
Write down your feelings when watching them!
Full transcript