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Mineral Resources and Mining
Transcript of Mineral Resources and Mining
Economic Impacts of Mining
1. Higher tax incomes for mining states
2. Improves services in communities
3. Increases employment
4. Raise of demand for goods and services increases the economy
1. Costs outweigh benefits
2. Private industries make the most profits while small mining communities make very little
3. Air pollution affects farmer's crops and their income
4. Globally, Southern countries' natural resources produce benefits for Northern countries while the South makes very little profit
Environmental Impacts of Mining
Mining causes soil erosion, dust pollution, water pollution, loss of biodiversity, formation of sinkholes, and contamination of soils
Runoff may destroy croplands and ecosystems
Chemicals like arsenic, sulfuric acid, and mercury may end up in surface waters
-topsoil is removed first and placed on the side of a trench
-surface layers of rock are removed to expose the deeper valuable layers
-valuable rocks are blasted in to smaller rocks using explosives
Open Pit Mining
-used when mineral deposits are close to the surface
-involves blasting and removing surface layers or soil
-once mineral is exposed it is drilled, fractured, and recovered
Open Cut Mining
-oldest underground mining technique
- uses a grid of tunnels and involves cutting panels into the coal seam (leaving pillars of coal to support the mine)
- less popular due to recent advances in technologies
Bord and Pillar
- uses mechanical shearers to cut coal away
- hydraulic powered supports hold up the roof of the mine
- mineral ores are extracted by collapsing the mineral deposits under their own weight
- type of underground mining
-manual technique that is used to sort valuable mineral from other sediments
-hot water is injected into the ore and dissolves it
-Sea water is placed in shallow ponds
-water evaporates, leaving behind salt deposits
Prior to 1872
Mining in open land was illegal before 1872.
General Mining Act of 1872
Stated that all American citizens 18 and older have the right to locate a hard rock or gravel mining claim on federal lands open to mineral entry.
Minerals include platinum, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and uranium
Timber and Stone Act of 1878
Allowed private purchase of mineable government land, it was later repealed
Mineral Leasing Act of 1920
Made certain nonmetallic minerals, such as petroleum and shale, not mineable.
Mineral Materials Act of 1947
Allows certain minerals, such as sand and gravel, to be sold or given away.
Multiple Mineral Use Act of 1954
Provides for the development of multiple minerals on on piece of land
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
Regulates coal mining operations and reclamations.
Current Mining News
Gold and copper mining in Alaska's Bristol Bay was stopped on March 2 by President Obama. The mine, known as the "Pebble Mine" would negatively impact the Bristol Bay watershed and the one of the richest salmon fisheries in the world. However, it would also add 1,000 jobs and unearth $300 billion of copper and gold. It is unknown whether or not the mine will be be permanently closed.
Imports of Mineral Resources
Mineral Resources Used in the U.S.
Coal Facts & Figures
History of Mining and Mining Safety
Mineral Resource - A concentration of naturally occurring material from the earth's crust that can be extracted and processed into useful products and raw materials at an affordable cost.
Ore - Rock that contains a large enough concentration of a particular mineral to make it profitable for mining and processing.
High-Grade Ore - Contains a fairly large amount of the desired nonrenewable resource.
Low-Grade Ore - Contains a smaller amount of the desired nonrenewable mineral resource.
Reserves - Identified resources from which the mineral can be extracted profitably at current prices.
Surface Mining - Remove shallow deposits.
Subsurface Mining - Remove deep deposits.
Overburden - The soil and rock overlying a useful mineral deposit.
Open-Pit Mining - Machines dig holes and remove ores (iron, copper, and gold), sand, gravel, and stone (limestone and marble).
Strip Mining - Useful and economical for extracting mineral deposits that lie close to the earth's surface in large horizontal beds.
Area Strip Mining - Used where the terrain is fairly flat.
Smelting - Heating ores to release metals.
Depletion Time - The time it takes to use up a certain proportion -usually 80% - of the reserves of a mineral at a given rate of use.
Capstone Mining gains on life-of-mine extension
Vancouver-based Capstone Mining has extended their copper mine in Pinto Valley, Arizona to 2026; It was supposed to stop producing in 2018. The operation has been up since 1974 but has shut down three times in this period. The average annual production for the first five years is 128.4 million pound of copper concentrate and 6.6 million pounds of copper cathode. They have decided to continue production because Capstone is the leading copper producer in the U.S. They also want to allow for mining efficiencies and future production techniques.
"Heigh-Ho" From Snow White and the Seven Dwarves
OK Tedi Mine
90 million tons of tailings dumped into the nearby river each year
613 square miles of forests have died off around the river
riverbeds have been raised 10 meters, causing the formation of rapids
the tailings polluted the fish populations, making people sick around the river who eat it and also polluted fisheries in the nearby area
The mine used to be Mt. Fubilan...