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GCSE- Medicine through time
Transcript of GCSE- Medicine through time
Aqueducts moved water through gravity alone, being constructed along a slight downward gradient within conduits of stone, brick or concrete.
In general, the poor used pots that they were supposed to empty into the sewer, or visited public latrines. Public latrines date back to the 2nd century BC. Whether intentionally or not, they became places to socialize. Long bench-like seats with keyhole-shaped openings cut in rows offered little privacy. Some latrines were free, for others small charges were made.
Most Roman cities had at least one, if not many, such buildings, which were centers not only for bathing, but socializing. Roman bath-houses were also provided for private villas, town houses, and forts. They were supplied with water from an adjacent river or stream, or more normally, by an aqueduct. The water would be heated by a log fire before being channeled into the hot bathing rooms. The public bath was built around three principal rooms: the caldarium (hot bath), the tepidarium (warm bath) and the frigidarium (cold bath).
Roman civilization developed in a different way from that of Greece. Instead of a large number of small city-states, the Romans developed a huge monolithic empire. This was ruled from Rome by an all-powerful emperor, who imposed his will through a single system of laws.
Rome became immensely wealthy, but the Romans were down-to-earth people, and their wealth flowed into practical projects, rather than into philosophy and culture.
Thus the centralised state directed its efforts into amazing engineering schemes such as those of the baths, aqueducts and sewers of Rome.
The importance of war for Roman medicine
The need for a healthy army led Romans to think about public health.
The capture of slaves brought Greek doctors to Rome.
The Roman army developed some of the earliest hospitals.
Anatomical and surgical skill developed as army doctors treated war wounds.
The Romans preferred prevention to cure, when it came to health. They put their energies into public health facilities, rather than following the medical theories that they knew about from the Greeks. Roman medicine was dominated by ideas that arose out of the needs of the army.
Galen was a greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman empire.Arguably the most accomplished of all medical researchers of antiquity, Galen influenced the development of various scientific disciplines, including anatomy, physiology, pathology, pharmacology, and neurology, as well as philosophy and logic.
Roman Public Health
The Roman Era
Galen- (Greek Physician)
GCSE- Medicine through time,
The association between stagnant waters and water-borne disease was well-known. Greek and Roman physicians knew the adverse health effects of lead on those who mined and processed it, and for this reason, ceramic pipes were preferred over lead. Where lead pipes were used, a continuous water-flow and the inevitable deposition of water-borne minerals within the pipes reduced the water's contamination by soluble lead.
The adjoining, smaller set of baths were assigned to the women. The entrance is by the door, which conducts into a small vestibule and from there into the apodyterium , which, like the one in the men's bath, has a seat (pulvinus, gradus) on either side built up against the wall. This opens upon a cold bath, answering to the natatio of the men's set, but of much smaller dimensions. There are four steps on the inside to descend into it.bOpposite to the door of entrance into the apodyterium is another doorway which leads to the tepidarium , which also communicates with the thermal chamber, on one side of which is a warm bath in a square recess, and at the farther extremity the labrum. The floor of this chamber is suspended, and its walls perforated for flues, like the corresponding one in the men's baths. The tepidarium in the women's baths had no brazier, but it had a hanging or suspended floor.
The Romans recycled public bath waste water by using it as part of the flow that flushed the latrines. Terra cotta piping was used in the plumbing that carried waste water from homes. The Romans were the first to seal pipes in concrete to resist the high water pressures developed in siphons and elsewhere. Beginning around the 5th century BC, city officials called aediles supervised the sanitary systems. They were responsible for the efficiency of the drainage and sewage systems, the cleansing and paving of the streets, prevention of foul smells, and general oversight of brothels, taverns, baths, and other water supplies.
From very early times the Romans, in imitation of the Etruscans, built underground channels to drain rainwater that might otherwise wash away precious top-soil, used ditches to drain swamps and dug subterranean channels to drain marshy areas. Over time, the Romans expanded the network of sewers that ran through the city and linked most of them, including some drains, to the Cloaca Maxima, which emptied into the Tiber River. In 33 BC, the Cloaca Maxima was enclosed, creating a large tunnel. The Cloaca Maxima, still drains the Forum Romanum and surrounding hills. Strabo, a Greek author who lived from about 60 BC to AD 24, admired the ingenuity of the Romans in his Geographica, writing:
The sewers, covered with a vault of tightly fitted stones, have room in some places for hay wagons to drive through them. And the quantity of water brought into the city by aqueducts is so great that rivers, as it were, flow through the city and the sewers; almost every house has water tanks, and service pipes, and plentiful streams of water...In short, the ancient Romans gave little thought to the beauty of Rome because they were occupied with other, greater and more necessary matters.
The Romans had a complex system of sewers covered by stones, much like modern sewers. Waste flushed from the latrines flowed through a central channel into the main sewage system and thence into a nearby river or stream. Roman waste management is admired for its innovation. The sewers were mainly for the removal of surface drainage and underground water. The sewage system as a whole did not really take off until the arrival of the Cloaca Maxima, an open channel that was later covered, and one of the best-known sanitation artifacts of the ancient world. It is not known how effective the sewers were, especially in removing excrement (poop).
The Cloaca Maxima
Most were buried beneath the ground, and followed its contours; obstructing peaks were circumvented or, less often, tunneled through. Where valleys or lowlands intervened, the conduit was carried on bridgework, or its contents fed into high-pressure lead, ceramic or stone pipes and siphoned across. Most aqueduct systems included sedimentation tanks, sluices and distribution tanks to regulate the supply at need.
Rome's first aqueduct supplied a water fountain sited at the city's cattle market. By the third century AD, the city had eleven aqueducts, sustaining a population of over a million in a water-extravagant economy; most of the water supplied the city's many public baths. Cities and municipalities throughout the Roman Empire emulated this model, and funded aqueducts as objects of public interest and civic pride, "an expensive yet necessary luxury to which all could, and did, aspire."
Hundreds of similar aqueducts were built throughout the Roman Empire, although the systems were not as extensive as those supplying Rome itself. Many of them have since collapsed or been destroyed, but a number of intact portions remain. Two notable surviving aqueducts are the Pont du Gard in France and the Aqueduct of Segovia in Spain.
Bathing was one of the most common daily activities in Roman culture, and was practiced across a wide variety of social classes. Though many contemporary cultures see bathing as a very private activity conducted in the home, bathing in Rome was a communal activity. While the extremely wealthy could afford bathing facilities in their homes, bathing most commonly occurred in public facilities called thermae. In some ways, these resembled modern-day spas. The Romans raised bathing to a high art as they socialized in these communal baths. Courtship was conducted, as well as sealing business deals, as they built lavish baths on natural hot springs.
The baths often included, aside from the three main rooms, a palaestra, or outdoor gymnasium where men would engage in various ball games and exercises. There, among other things, weights were lifted and the discus thrown. Men would oil themselves (as soap was still a luxury good and thus not widely available), shower, and remove the excess with a strigil . Often wealthy bathers would bring a slave that carried his master's towels, oils, and strigils to the baths and then watched over them once in the baths, as thieves and pickpockets were known to frequent the baths
According to Lord Amulree, the site where Julius Caesar was assassinated, the Hall of Curia in the Theatre of Pompey, was turned into a public latrine because of the dishonor it had witnessed. The sewer system, like a little stream or river, ran beneath it, carrying the wastes away to the Cloaca Maxima.
In the first century AD, the Roman sewage system was very efficient. In his Natural History, Pliny remarked that of all the things Romans had accomplished, the sewers were "the most noteworthy things of all".
In larger Roman towns, people often got sick or died from drinking water that had been contaminated with sewage. When people drink water with poop in it, they can get other people's germs and get sick with dysentery or die. To fix this problem, many Roman towns built aqueducts to bring in fresh water from the hills outside of the towns. They also built public latrines and systems of sewage pipes to carry sewage out of the streets and dump it into the river. This was a big improvement on Greek sewage arrangements, where people just poured their waste into the street however they wanted.
These sewers just dumped raw sewage into the river, which was better than leaving it lying around in the streets, but still did spread germs sometimes. The Romans didn't have any way of treating sewage to kill the germs, as we do today, and they didn't understand the need to do that
The son of Aelius Nicon, a wealthy architect with scholarly interests, Galen received a comprehensive education that prepared him for a successful career as a physician and philosopher.He traveled extensively, exposing himself to a wide variety of medical theories and discoveries before settling in Rome, where he served prominent members of Roman society and eventually was given the position of personal physician to several emperors.
Galen's understanding of anatomy and medicine was principally influenced by the then-current theory of humourism, as advanced by ancient Greek physicians such as Hippocrates. His theories dominated and influenced Western medical science for more than 1,300 years.
In 148, when he was 19, his father died, leaving him independently wealthy. He then followed the advice he found in Hippocrates' teaching and traveled and studied widely including such destinations as Smyrna (now Izmir), Corinth, Crete, Cilicia (now Çukurova), Cyprus, and finally the great medical school of Alexandria, exposing himself to the various schools of thought in medicine.
Galen went to Rome in 162 and made his mark as a practicing physician. His impatience brought him into conflict with other doctors and he felt menaced by them. His demonstrations there antagonized the less skilled and more conservative physicians in the city. When Galen's animosity with the Roman medical practitioners became serious, he feared he might be exiled or poisoned, so he left the city.
Rome engaged in foreign wars in 161. Marcus Aurelius and his colleague Lucius Verus were in the north fighting the Marcomanni. During the autumn of 169 when Roman troops were returning to Aquileia, a great plague broke out, and the emperor summoned Galen back to Rome. He was ordered to accompany Marcus and Verus to Germany as the court physician. The following spring Marcus was persuaded to release Galen after receiving a report that Asclepius was against the project. He was left behind to act as physician to the imperial heir Commodus. It was here in court that Galen wrote extensively on medical subjects. Ironically, Lucius Verus died in 169, and Marcus Aurelius himself died in 180, both victims of the plague.
Galen was the physician to Commodus for much of the emperor’s life and treated his common illnesses. According to Dio Cassius 72.14.3–4, in about 189, under Commodus’ reign, a pestilence occurred which at its height killed 2,000 people a day in Rome. This was most likely the same plague that struck Rome during Marcus Aurelius’ reign.
Galen became physician to Septimius Severus during his reign in Rome. Galen compliments Severus and Caracalla on keeping a supply of drugs for their friends and mentions three cases in which they had been of use in 198.
Do not, however, make the mistake of thinking that medicine in Roman times regressed in everything except the area of public health. The Romans did not continue investigating Greek theories of disease, but they did advance in more than one area of medicine.
Hippocrates- (Greek Physician)
Hippocrates is widely considered to be the "Father of Medicine".His contributions revolutionized the practice of medicine; but after his death the advancement stalled. So revered was Hippocrates, that his teachings were largely taken as too great to be improved upon and no significant advancements of his methods were made for a long time. The centuries after Hippocrates' death were marked as much by retrograde movement as by further advancement. For instance, "after the Hippocratic period, the practice of taking clinical case-histories died out," according to Fielding Garrison.
The Hippocratic Oath:
The Hippocratic oath is a seminal document on the ethics of medical practice, was attributed to Hippocrates in antiquity although new information shows it may have been written after his death. This is probably the most famous document of the Hippocratic Corpus. Recently the authenticity of the document's author has come under scrutiny. While the Oath is rarely used in its original form today, it serves as a foundation for other, similar oaths and laws that define good medical practice and morals. Such derivatives are regularly taken today by medical graduates about to enter medical practice.
Hippocrates is credited with being the first person to believe that diseases were caused naturally, not because of superstition and gods. Hippocrates was credited by the disciples of Pythagoras of allying philosophy and medicine. He separated the discipline of medicine from religion, believing and arguing that disease was not a punishment inflicted by the gods but rather the product of environmental factors, diet, and living habits. Indeed there is not a single mention of a mystical illness in the entirety of the Hippocratic Corpus. However, Hippocrates did work with many convictions that were based on what is now known to be incorrect anatomy and physiology, such as Humorism.
Hippocratic medicine was humble and passive. The therapeutic approach was based on "the healing power of nature". According to this doctrine, the body contains within itself the power to re-balance the four humours and heal itself (physis) Hippocratic therapy focused on simply easing this natural process. To this end, Hippocrates believed "rest and immobilization were of capital importance." In general, the Hippocratic medicine was very kind to the patient; treatment was gentle, and emphasized keeping the patient clean and sterile. For example, only clean water or wine were ever used on wounds, though "dry" treatment was preferable. Soothing balms were sometimes employed.
Hippocratic medicine was notable for its strict professionalism, discipline, and rigorous practice. The Hippocratic work On the Physician recommends that physicians always be well-kept, honest, calm, understanding, and serious. The Hippocratic physician paid careful attention to all aspects of his practice: he followed detailed specifications for, "lighting, personnel, instruments, positioning of the patient, and techniques of bandaging and splinting" in the ancient operating room.
Hippocrates and his followers were first to describe many diseases and medical conditions. He is given credit for the first description of clubbing of the fingers, an important diagnostic sign in chronic lung disease, lung cancer and cyanotic heart disease. For this reason, clubbed fingers are sometimes referred to as "Hippocratic fingers". Hippocrates was also the first physician to describe Hippocratic face in Prognosis. Shakespeare famously alludes to this description when writing of Falstaff's death in Act 2, Scene 3 of Henry V.
A drawing of Hippocrates Bust
Lifestyle of plains Indians
Way of life and Beliefs
Who were the plains Indians?
Many different tribes made up the people we call the Plains Indians. some tribes such as the Sioux were so large they were called nations, others were much smaller. although the tribes were different in appearance they had different languages and customs , they were all the same in the way that they adapted to living on the great plains.
At the beginning of the 19th century , all tribes had their own acknowledged territory on the plains.
Some tribes were sworn enemies and would fight on sight. Others were traditional allies . Some made and broke alliances as conditions changed and in particular as white Americans began to venture onto the great plains
Indians believed that one great spirit ruled over the world. All natural things had spirits of their own and had to be treated with respect.
Plains Indians hunted Buffalo. They would use every part of the buffalo that they killed. They only took what they needed to survive as buffalo were very important to the tribes survival.
All members of the band (tribe) were important. Families lived in bands where most were related to each other so it was easier to protect the tribe.
Indians Valued their horses the most. They used the horses to hunt buffalo, go to war, riding for fun and to move around the plains.
Indians didn't need to be ruled by law, as everything was ruled by custom and tradition. If they did anything wrong they would be shamed in public.
Indians didn't fight to conquer other tribes or to gain land. They made short, violent raids to steal horses of to kill men or for revenge and honor.
How Religious were they?
How did the Tipi solve the problems living on the plains?
There was a lack of wood in the desert so there wasn't enough to make a wooden house so the indians had to come up with an alternative. the strong winds wouldn't be able to break through as the wind ,such as tornadoes and hurricanes, would go around the tipis as they are aerodynamic. The tipis were not effected by the weather as they were weather resistant, in the winter the indians would pile dirt up against the edge of the tipi to keep it cozy. In the summer the bottom of the tipi would be able to roll up, the flaps at the top of the tipi were to allow the smoke out. The women owned everything;the pots, pans and the tipi.
The Tipi was easy to pack up, it only took about 10 minutes to fold and then put on the back of the horses and the Indians were then able to move on.
Why did the Sioux live in tipis?
The Native Indians lived in tipis because they were easy to transport, the Indians were nomadic so they followed the buffaloes herds. The tipis were very sturdy so they didn't move with strong winds, the tipis were easily adjustable to the weather. in the winter they piled mud up the sides so they were warmer, in the summer the bottom of the tipi could open up to catch the cool breezes. There wasn't many trees so the indians had to make do with the little they had so made cone shaped houses to use less wood.
Through the Ages