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Chapter 27: America and World War II, 1939-1945

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Harry Jarcho

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Transcript of Chapter 27: America and World War II, 1939-1945

Chapter 27: America and World War II, 1939-1945
Lesson 1: War Clouds Gather
A. The Rise of Dictators

What events led to the rise of dictators in Europe?
1. Mussolini in Italy
2. Germany
3. The Soviet Union and Japan
4. The United States Tries to Stay Neutral
B. Germany Pushes the Limits
– Why did other nations allow Germany to expand its territory?

Lesson 2: World War II Begins
A. War in Europe

How did World War II begin?
1. The Spread of War
2. Britain Battles for Survival
3. Germany Turns on Stalin
B. The United States and the War

Why did the United States gradually become involved on the side of the Allies?
1. The 1940 Election
2. The United States' Involvement Grows
3. The Atlantic Charter
C. The Japanese Threat

What happened as a result of the attack on Pearl Harbor?
1. The United States Responds
2. Attack on Pearl Harbor
Lesson 3: On the Home Front
A. The United States Prepares

How did the United States change its economy to provide supplies foe the war effort?
1. Building the Military
2. A Changing Economy
3. Funding the War
B. The United States at War

How did Americans help the war effort?
1. Making Sacrifices for Victory
2. Helping in Many Ways
3. Women at Work
4. African Americans
5. Native Americans
6. Latinos
7. Japanese Americans
8. U.S. Internment Camps

Lesson 4: The European Theater of War
A. Focusing on the Nazi Threat

What strategies allowed for a successful campaign against the Axis Powers in North Africa?
1. Setting a Strategy
2. Allied Success in North America
3. The Allies Attack Italy
B. The Allies Take Control in Europe

How did the two-front war fought by the Allies lead to the defeat of the Axis Powers?
1. The Soviets Defend the Eastern Front
2. D-Day
3. Victory in Europe

Chapter Outline
Lesson 2: World War II Begins
Lesson 3: On the Home Front
Lesson 4: The European Theater of War
Lesson 1: War Clouds Gather
The Rise of Dictators
Mussolini in Italy
Germany
Germany Pushes the Limits
The Failure of Appeasement
The Attack on Pearl Harbor
War in Europe
The Japanese Threat
The United States and the War
Women at Work
African Americans
Organized Labor
The United States Prepares
The United States at War
U.S. Internment Camps
The Costs and Legacy of War
The Pacific Front
The Holocaust
D-Day
Focusing on the Nazi Threat
Fascism
:
a centralized, militaristic, anti-democratic form of government - usually led by a powerful leader who comes to signify the state, e.g., Mussolini in Italy, Hitler in Germany.
Once he took power, Mussolini outlawed all rival political parties, ended freedom of the press and crushed all challenges to his dictatorial rule
He also began to aggressively build Italy's military, in preparation for foreign conquest

Italian and Japanese fascism followed similar paths
both sought glory and to be viewed as equal to the Big Three
their hopes for colonial empires had been crushed by the Treaty of Versailles
both sought colonies for the raw materials needed for industrial expansion

Like Europe, Japan suffered unemployment and food shortages during the world-wide depression of the 1930s. During this time, the military took control of the government from the Emperor, and began an aggressive expansion into the Pacific and Asia
Japan invaded Manchuria (1931) and then all of China (1937)
In both cases, the League of Nations condemned the aggression, but did nothing to stop it – a precedent of appeasement was established that would be noted by Hitler

In 1940, Japan joined Germany and Italy to form the
Axis Alliance
Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini
Hideki Tojo, War Minister and then Prime Minister of Japan

Economic Ruin in Germany -
Huge, unpayable WWI reparations,
economic depression,
hyperinflation, and
rising unemployment
all fueled the rise of Hitler and his National Socialist (Nazi) Party

Hitler was legally elected chancellor of Germany in 1933
Like Mussolini in Italy, he then banned all other political parties and assumed dictatorial powers
His goal was to restore German greatness, reunite all German people, and eliminate all "inferior races" – Jews, Slavs, Gypsies

Once in power, Hitler demonized the Jews [hatred of Jews is called
anti-Semitism
], uniting Germany behind a racial program which progressed from:
persecution (discrimination),
to stripping Jews of their citizenship and rights,
to the
"Final Solution"
of extermination

Still traumatized by WWI, most Americans opposed involvement in the war -
Isolationism
returned to American foreign policy
The
Neutrality Act
imposed an
embargo
on selling arms to warring countries and warned Americans against sailing on the ships of warring countries

The
America First Committee
organized neutrality rallies and campaigns across the nation
Prominent members of Congress and aviation hero Charles Lindbergh led the AFC
Isolationist sentiments continued to force FDR to proceed cautiously in his efforts to move the public to support the Allies
Additional steps:
1936 – Congress banned loans to warring countries and imposed a
"cash-and-carry"
requirement on nonmilitary trade with warring countries – to avoid the attacks on U.S. ships that had drawn the U.S. into WWI
1939 – FDR persuaded Congress to allow weapons sales to the Allies on a cash-and-carry basis as war expanded in Europe
America First posters
Dr. Seuss
Not a fan of America First
"We must be the great arsenal of democracy"
America Moves toward War
"Ships for Bases"
(1940)
FDR uses Executive Order to trade 50 destroyers to Britain in exchange for the right to build bases on British properties in the Atlantic
October, 1940 - Congress increases defense budget and authorizes America's 1st peacetime draft
FDR elected to 3rd term
"Four Freedoms"
speech – freedom of speech, religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear -
FDR defines WWII as a war in defense of democracy
Lend-Lease Act
(March, 1941)
Congress authorizes lending/leasing of arms to any country whose defense is vital to U.S. security (Britain and, when Hitler attacked the Soviet Union, the USSR as well)
Roosevelt and Churchill Sign the Atlantic Charter, August, 1941

1935
: Hitler began rebuilding Germany's military, in violation of the Treaty of Versailles – no one stopped him
1936
: Germany occupied the
Rhineland
in violation of Versailles – again, Britain and France took no action
Hitler then signed alliances with Italy and with Japan
1938:
Hitler annexed Austria and announced his intent to seize German-speaking parts of Czechoslovakia (the
Sudetenland
)
Munich Conference
(Sept. 1938): Despite Czechoslovakia's defense treaty with France, Britain and France agreed to Germany's take-over of the Sudetenland in exchange for Hitler's pledge not to seize any more territory
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain declared that the agreement guaranteed "peace for our time."
Six months later, Nazi forces seized the remainder of Czechoslovakia and massed on the Polish border
August, 1939: German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact –
Hitler and Stalin sign a nonaggression pact
Hitler no longer needed to fear a two-front war and invaded Poland within the month
The Pact contained secret plans for Germany and the Soviet Union to divide up Eastern Europe
Neutrality Act of 1935
"Spineless Leaders of Democracy"
Dr. Seuss is not Impressed with Appeasement
December 7, 1941 – Japan attacks Pearl Harbor
More than 2400 Americans die; massive destruction to U.S. naval forces and aircraft
Isolationism evaporates – Congress votes 388 to 1 to declare war on Japan on December 8
Germany and Italy declare war on the United States on December 11
The War Powers Act and the Expansion of Government Authority Over all Aspects of the Economy
By the end of 1943, two-thirds of the nation's agriculture and manufacturing production were directly war related.
WWII ended the Great Depression – millions joined the workforce and hours and wages rose
The
War Production Board
assumed near total control over the economy
awarded defense contracts
allocated essential resources (e.g., oil, rubber, copper)
supervised the conversion of consumer manufacturing to war needs (e.g., car plants converted to tank production)

"America's productive industrial economy, as much or more than its troops, proved the decisive factor in winning WWII.
Even before Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had begun to prepare, by reinstituting the draft
More than 15 million men and 350,000 women joined the armed forces
The armed forces remained segregated - Truman would end military segregation in 1948
Why did the United States gradually become involved on the side of the Allies?
Encouraged by aggressive government and industry recruitment, women joined the workforce in record numbers
Housewives joined the workforce
Single women already in the workforce left low-paying "women's work" for higher paying jobs in the defense industry – they were still paid significantly less than men for the same work
Participation in wartime industry forever changed the image and expectations of women
Despite pressure to return to the home and "women's work" after the war and let returning veterans take over factory jobs, women would not look back
To avoid a threatened protest march, and to keep production running smoothly, FDR issued
Executive Order 8802
, which barred "discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin."

Segregation continued, and treatment of minorities, including Mexican contract workers, was poor, but WWII helpd set the stage for the civil rights movements of the 1950s and 1960s
National War Labor Board (NWLB)
In exchange for a no-strike pledge by major unions, FDR established the NWLB, which set wages, hours, and working conditions for war industries
Defense workers were encouraged to join unions
By 1942, almost all food and consumer goods were subject to rationing to preserve most resources for the war effort
40% of the nation's vegetables were raised in 20 million home "victory gardens"
Making The War a War for Freedom for all Americans
African American leaders such as W.E.B. Du Bois and labor leader A. Philip Randolph drew unsettling parallels between Nazi anti-Semitism and American racial segregation and discrimination

"This is a war for freedom. Whose freedom?" If it meant "the freedom of Negroes in the Southern United States, my gun is on my shoulder."
– W.E.B. Du Bois

Anti-Asian racial prejudice
, made worse by post-Pearl Harbor hysteria, led FDR to issue
Executive Order 9066
, authorizing the War Department to remove Japanese Americans from the west coast and relocate them in remote locations for the duration of the war
Despite no evidence of disloyalty or treasonous intent, Japanese Americans (two-thirds were U.S. citizens) were forced to sell their businesses and property and were shipped to remote locations
In two landmark cases,
Hirabayashi v. United States (1943)
and
Korematsu v. United States (1944)
, the Supreme Court did not address the constitutionality of the removal, but refused to second guess the military's assessment of the risk – the Court allowed the removal on the basis of "military necessity"
In 1988 Congress issued a formal apology and awarded financial compensation to surviving internees.

In 1998, President Bill Clinton awarded the
Presidential Medal of Freedom
, the highest civilian honor in the United States, to
Fred Korematsu
, saying, "In the long history of our country's constant search for justice, some names of ordinary citizens stand for millions of souls. Plessy, Brown, Parks ... to that distinguished list, today we add the name of Fred Korematsu."
The Big Three - FDR, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stalin
The Allies were united only in their goal of defeating the Axis
They differed on strategy and on post-war goals
FDR and Churchill sought a world of democracy and a capitalist economy – they were deeply skeptical of Soviet post-war aims and communism
The Big Three agreed that defeating Germany in Europe was a priority over defeating Japan, but disagreed on how to do it
After the fall of France, the Soviet Union was bearing the brunt of the Nazi war machine and was bitter at British and U.S. delays in opening a western front
The Soviet Union sustained horrible casualties in the defense of Leningrad and Stalingrad before halting the German advances in 1942
The siege lasted for 872 days (Sept. 1941 - Jan. 1943) and cost more than 1 million lives of the residents of the besieged city. Russians faced starvation, cold and bombings.
One million Soviet soldiers were killed confronting the Nazis in the outskirts of the city.

Regarded as the largest and bloodiest battle in the history of warfare.
The heavy losses inflicted on the German Wehrmacht make it arguably the most decisive battle of the whole war.
It was a turning point in the European theater of World War II
the German forces never regained the initiative in the East and withdrew a vast military force from the West to replace their losses.
By early 1944 Stalin's troops had driven the starving and depleted Nazi army out of the Soviet Union
The Axis suffered 850,000 total casualties
The USSR 1,129,619 total casualties
25,000 to 40,000 Soviet civilians died in Stalingrad and its suburbs during a single week of aerial bombing ; the total number of civilians killed in Stalingrad is unknown.
In all, the battle resulted in an estimated 1.7–2 million Axis and Soviet casualties.
By May, 1943, the western Allies had recaptured Africa from the Germans and began an invasion of Italy, leading to the ouster of Mussolini. The stage was set for the invasion of France

D-Day: June 6, 1944
1.5 million soldiers land on five beachheads in western France
Despite horrific losses, they establish a beachhead
By August, the Allies liberated Paris, and by September the Germans had been driven out of France and Belgium
An estimated 6 million Jews and an additional 6 million Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals, the physically and mentally handicapped, and other "undesirables" were murdered by the Nazis in their extermination camps and in their slave labor camps.


The U.S. fleet finally halted and began to reverse Japanese advances with two crucial victories won with the use of aircraft carriers which had not been destroyed at Pearl Harbor
the Battle of the Coral Sea
the Battle of Midway

In October, 1944, the U.S. recaptured the Philippines, with a stunning victory that destroyed virtually the entire Japanese fleet
Japan captured the Philippines in May 1942.
Over 10,000 U.S. POWs died under the brutal conditions of the
Bataan "death march"
from captivity to the POW camps. These photos show a soldier about to be beheaded for attempting to escape, as well as soldiers carrying their dead comrades as they marched to the camp.
Conditions and casualties were brutal in the island hopping campaign to recapture the South Pacific theater.
Estimates of U.S. casualties are over 110,000 dead or missing and over 250,000 wounded.
These staggering losses influenced Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan
Advisors estimated that the U.S. would suffer up to 280,000 deaths and between half a million and one million total American casualties in a traditional assault on Japan.
American victories at Iwo Jima and Okinawa put the U.S. within bombing distance of Japan, and the U.S. began a devastating campaign of traditional and fire bombing of Tokyo and other Japanese cities
Despite massive casualties, the Japanese refused to surrender
The Island Hopping Strategy:
Harry Truman, the Manhattan Project, and Deciding to Use the A-Bomb
On April 12, 1945, FDR died and Vice President
Harry S. Truman
became President
Only then did Truman learn of the
Manhattan Project
, the top secret U.S. program to develop an atomic bomb
Believing that Japan's leaders would never surrender to normal warfare, regardless of their casualties, Truman ordered the dropping of atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima (Aug. 6) and Nagasaki (Aug. 8)
An estimated 100,000 Japanese died in Hiroshima and 60,000 in Nagasaki
The Japanese government announced its agreement to unconditional surrender on Aug. 10
The Allies Take Control in Europe
Top Secret Test Site for the Manhattan Project
The Human and Physical Toll
:
Worldwide, more than 55 million died in WWII, nearly 2.5% of the world's population
More than half of the dead were civilians – they died from bombings, starvation, disease, torture, and murder
An 100 million additional soldiers and civilians were wounded
Hundreds of cities were destroyed, some wiped off the face of the Earth
A Changed World:
The industrial base of Germany and Japan was largely destroyed
Britain was no longer a global power – its economy was in ruins and its colonies demanded independence, as promised in the
Atlantic Charte
r
The U.S. emerged as the only nation with the atomic bomb and with a largely untouched homeland
Decisions reached during the war, as well as political and economic differences, set the stage for the coming confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union, the
Cold War
A Changed United States:
War mobilization revitalized the economy, ending the Great Depression
The war accelerated the growth of the federal government, already grown larger during the New Deal
War mobilization also stimulated economic opportunities for women and minorities, although the struggle for equality would be rocky and long
The Siege of Leningrad
The Big Three:
Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin
C. The Holocaust

What is the Holocaust, and how did it begin?
1. Persecution of Germany's Jews
2. The Persecution Spreads
3. The Final Solution
4. In Remembrance

Lesson 5: The War in the Pacific
A. The Pacific Front

What events occurred on the Pacific front?
1. The Japanese Take the Philippines
2. The Island Hopping Strategy
3. On Toward Japan
B. The Atomic Bomb Ends the War

How did the United States' use of the atomic bomb bring about Japan's surrender?
1. Deciding to Use the A-Bomb
2. Japan Surrenders
3. The Costs of War
The War in the Pacific
The Soviet Union and Japan
The United States Tries to Stay Neutral
How did World War II Begin?
The Spread of War
Britain Battles for Survival
The 1940 Election
The United States Responds
Japanese Expansionism in the Pacific
1940 – Japan allies with Germany and Italy, forming the
Axis Powers
Japan invades French Indochina and threatens the Indies, British Malaya and the American-held Philippines
The U.S. freezes all trade with Japan, including oil (the U.S. supplies approx. 80% of Japan's oil import needs) - Japan views the freeze as an act of war
How did the United States change its economy to provide supplies for the war effort?
Building the Military
A Changing Economy
Funding the War
Making Sacrifices for Victory/
Helping in Many Ways
Rationing
Rosie the Riveter
Native Americans
Latinos
Japanese Americans
Setting a Strategy
The Battle of Stalingrad
The Soviets Defend the Eastern Front
Allied Success in North Africa
The Allies Attack Italy
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
Victory in Europe
The Allies March on Germany's Capital – Berlin
The Allies also launched an air campaign and firebombing of German cities that weakened Germany, resulting in over 1 million dead or wounded
Despite a last ditch German counter-offensive (the Battle of the Bulge), the western allies marched toward Berlin while the Russians were moving toward Berlin from the east
With Russian troops massed outside Berlin, Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945
Germany formally surrendered May 7
What events occurred on the Pacific front?
The Japanese Take the Philippines
After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese expanded rapidly through the South Pacific, capturing Hong Kong, Wake Island,Guam, and, capturing the Philippines in May, 1942
Turning the Tide in the Pacific
Marines Raise the Flag at Iwo Jima
How did the United States' use of the atomic bomb bring about Japan's surrender?
Joseph Stalin and the Soviet Union
America First Committee:
Keep U.S.Out of War
Appeasement:
Giving in to aggression in the hope of avoiding war
Britain and France failed to confront Germany when it began attacking its neighbors, taking over land that it claimed was part of the "Fatherland"
Britain and France wanted to avoid war, and listened to Hitler's pledges that he would go no farther

Military Rule Comes to Japan
Hitler's Aggression: Step by Step to War
Germany Turns on Stalin
The United States' Involvement Grows
The Mushroom Cloud of an Atomic Bomb
Hitler's Rise to Power: The Legacy of the Versailles
Hyperinflation in Germany Led to Economic Chaos
In January, 1922, $1.00 was the equivalent of just over 100 German Marks. By November, 1923, you would need almost
10 trillion
Marks to equal $1.00.
A loaf of bread cost 200 Billion Marks!

Joseph Stalin
took totalitarian control of the Soviet Union in 1924, after the death of Lenin, brutally eliminating all rivals.
Japanese Militarization and Aggression
September 3, 1939:
Two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany – World War II had officially begun
With the U.S. still officially neutral, Germany launched a
blitzkrieg -
a
"lightning war" –
against its vastly weaker neighbors

In the next 9 months, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and, finally, France all fell to the Nazi blitzkrieg –
only Britain remained free of Nazi control
The "Miracle at Dunkirk"
When the Nazis took France, they drove the French and British troops to the French coast on the English Channel, where they were trapped.

More than 800 British military and civilian boats, anything that would float, ferried over 300,000 French and British troops across the Channel to Britain, saving the war from an early end
Blitzkrieg
1940: Germany launches an aerial bombing assault on Britain
Military targets and population centers, like London, were bombed
In a heroic battle, the British Royal Air Force (RAF) was able to inflict heavy losses on the German attack, and Hitler called it off

Prime Minister Winston Churchill said of the efforts of the RAF,

"Never in the field of human conflict was so much owed by so many to so few."
The Air War Over Britain
"We shall go on to the end, we shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be. We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills; we shall never surrender."
– Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
"What General Weygand called the Battle of France is over. I expect that the battle of Britain is about to begin. Upon this battle depends the survival of Christian civilization. Upon it depends our own British life, and the long continuity of our institutions and our Empire. The whole fury and might of the enemy must very soon be turned on us. Hitler knows that he will have to break us in this island or lose the war. If we can stand up to him, all Europe may be free and the life of the world may move forward into broad, sunlit uplands. But if we fail, then the whole world, including the United States, including all that we have known and cared for, will sink into the abyss of a new Dark Age made more sinister, and perhaps more protracted, by the lights of perverted science.
Let us therefore brace ourselves to our duties, and so bear ourselves that if the British Empire and its Commonwealth last for a thousand years, men will still say, 'This was their Finest Hour.' "

— Winston Churchill, speech to the House of Commons, 18 June 1940,
following the collapse of France. Many thought Britain would follow.
"This was their Finest Hour"
Like FDR's Fireside Chats, Churchill rallied the British people through stirring speeches. In this famous speech at the beginning of the Battle of Britain, he defines the stakes in WWII - the very survival of democracy and civilization.
London Bombed Out by German Luftwaffe
With the world in crisis, FDR broke with a precedent going all the way back to George Washington when he decided to run for a third term as President. He is the only President to serve more than two terms. Following WWII, the U.S. passed the 22nd Amendment, limiting Presidents to two terms
FDR is Elected to a 3rd Term
The Atlantic Charter
The Atlantic Charter
(August, 1941)
Joint statement by FDR and Churchill meet and issue a joint statement, identifying their shared goals for the war and beyond
Economic cooperation
Self-determination for all nations (an end to colonial rule)
Political stability – "that all men in all lands may live out their lives in freedom from fear and want."
The Charter reflected the values in
Wilson's Fourteen Points
, as well as
FDR's Four Freedoms
It set the tone for the post-war struggle between the west and the Communist world - the Soviet Union was pointedly excluded
"Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

I believe I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make very certain that this form of treachery shall never endanger us again.

With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - so help us God.

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, Dec. 7, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire."
– Franklin Delano Roosevelt, in speech to Congress, Dec. 8, 1941
Congress declared war on Japan within 60 minutes
"A Date Which Will Live in Infamy"
The U.S. spent over $320 billion on the war effort - 10 times the amount spent in WWI
Higher taxes and borrowing (loans and sale of war bonds) paid for the war
Revenue Act of 1942
Raised business taxes
Imposed income taxes on most Americans
Like WWI, bonds were a significance source of funding, and were heavily promoted

How did Americans help the war effort?
Although women did not serve in combat, they served the war effort in many ways - including serving as nurses and training fighter pilots
Thousands of Native Americans served in the military
Many 1000s more left the reservations to take jobs in defense industries
During the war, the U.S. sent critical military messages about troop movements and battle plans using the Navajo language, which only Navajos could translate.
The Japanese never broke the Navajo code
Navajo Code Talkers
Hundreds of thousands of Latinos served in the U.S. military – unlike blacks, they served in integrated units
In order to meet wartime agriculture needs and railroad construction, the U.S. also encouraged millions of Mexicans to emigrate to the U.S., in the
Bracero Program
.
These Mexicans were not granted U.S. citizenship and after the war prejudices led to pressures for the Mexican immigrants to return to Mexico
Executive Order 9066 – Japanese Internment

Following the failure of the Battle of Britain, Hitler decided he needed the resources and land of the Soviet Union, so he broke his nonaggression treaty and attacked Russia
The Soviet Union's military was no match for the German war machine and suffered heavy losses
Stalin settled on the
"Scorched Earth"
strategy – the Soviets would retreat deep into Soviet territory, destroying all of their crops, cities, hydroelectric dams, and all resources, so that the Nazis would have to bring in all food and supplies vast distances
These extended supply lines and the harsh Soviet winters would, like WWI, prove the Nazis' undoing
The Nazis wanted North Africa because oil that Britain depended on had to travel through the Suez Canal in Egypt.
After a series of Nazi gains in North Africa in 1942, a joint British/American command was finally able, in 1943, to drive the Germans out of North Africa.
The Allies then began an assault on Italy
After retaking Africa, the Allies launched an assault to conquer Italy, home of Mussolini
The campaign was under the command of U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, and the two main field generals were U.S. General George Patton and British General Bernard Montgomery
"We marched into a forest where a huge long ditch was already dug ... I could hear ... a machine gun ... All of a sudden, ... I saw my mother and four sisters lined up and before I had a chance to say, 'Mother!' they were already dead. Somehow time stands still ... I would have been almost the next one but all of a sudden the bombers came over, we were ordered to lay face downwards, but everyone started running ... and I ... ran deep into the forest."

– from
Remembering: Voices of the Holocaust
"We'd march all day, a continuous plodding along, just trying to keep up. I always tried to stay in the middle of the column rather than on the flanks. That way I was further away ... and might avoid a ... beating. I don't know how to explain a typical day except that it was brutal, exhausting, hot, and your feet and legs just ached."
– from
Death March: The Survivors of Bataan
Audio Clip of Winston Churchill "We Shall Never Surrender" Speech
Audio Clip of "Finest Hour" Speech
Audio Excerpts from the Speech
FDR asks Congress to Declare War
Allied successes caused the Italians to remove Mussolini from power
The Italian government surrendered
Though German troops fought on, in June 1944, the Allies recaptured Rome, Italy's capital
On Toward Japan
Midway, Iwo Jima, and Okinawa
Video Clip of D-Day Invasion
Video: Life in an Internment Camp
Video: Life in an Internment Camp
A Brief History of the Holocaust & WWII
Video: The Holocaust
Video: The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb
Full transcript