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Transcript of jean watson
Theory of Caring By: Rebekah McKelvey RN A little bit about Jean Watson:
Place of Birth: West Virginia
BSN, University of Colorado, 1964
MS, University of Colorado, 1966
PhD, University of Colorado, 1973
Kellogg Fellowship in Australia
Fulbright Research Award in Sweden
8 Honorary Doctoral Degrees (5 of which are international in Sweden, United Kingdom, Spain, British Colombia and Quebec, Canada).
The Fetzer Institute Norman Cousins Award
www.watsoncaringscience.org Interesting Facts:
14 Published books (she is either author or co-author)
2008 founded a non-profit foundation: Watson Caring Science Institute to further the work of Caring science in the world
Watson is a fellow of the AAN
www.watsoncaringscience.org The Implications of Caring Theory
Considered a philosophical and moral/ethical
Model of caring includes both art and science
"it offers a framework that embraces and intersects with art, science, humanities, spirituality, and new dimensions of mindbodyspirit medicine and nursing evolving openly as central to human phenomena of nursing practice. I emphasize that it is possible to read, study, learn about, even teach and research the caring theory; however, to truly "get it," one has to personally experience it; thus the model is both an invitation and an opportunity to interact with the ideas, experiment with and grow within the philosophy, and living it out in one’s personal/professional life." (Watson, 1999)
www.watsoncaringscience.org Transpersonal Caring
"Transpersonal caring seeks to connect with and embrace the spirit or soul of the other through the processes of caring and healing and being in authentic relation, in the moment."
"the transpersonal nurse has the ability to center consciousness and intentionality on caring, healing, and wholeness, rather than on disease, illness and pathology."
Tranpersonal Caring is moving the focus from the science of nursing to the art of nursing involving nurse-patient relationships.
The 0ne caring (nurse) and the one being cared for (patient) are interconnected
www.watsoncaringscience.org Caring Theory Caring as a Science
Encompasses a humanitarian, human science orientation to human
caring processes, phenomena and experiences.
Includes arts, humanities and science
Is reflective, subjective and interpretative as well as objective-empirical
Includes ontological, philosophical, ethical, historical inquiry and studies
Includes multiple epistemological approaches to inquiry including clinical and empirical (is also now exploring explore other ways of knowing; aesthetic, poetic, narrative, personal, intuitive, kinesthetic, evolving consciousness, intentionality, metaphysical - spiritual, as well as moral-ethical knowing.
(Cohen (1991) http://www2.carilion.com/hr/internal/html/IamCarilion/ Theory of caring Watson describes nursing as human science
Major focus=The process of human care
Based on humanism and metaphysics (philosophy of being and knowing)
(McCance, Hugh & Boore, 1999) Theory of Caring Goal helping people gain a higher degree of harmony within the mind, body and soul using ten caring transactions (also referred to as Watson's 10 carative factors
(McCance, Hugh & Boore, 1999) Watson's 10 Carative Factors 1. Humanistic-altruistic system of values
3.Sensitivity to self and others
4.Helping-trusting, human care relationship
5.Expressing positive and negative feelings
6.Creative problem-solving caring process
8.Supportive, protective, and/or corrective mental, physical societal and spiritual environment
9. Human needs assistance
10. Existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces
(McCance, Hugh & Boore, 1999) Watson's 7 Basic Assumptions:Science of a caring model Caring...
can be effectively demonstrated and practiced only interpersonally
•consists of carative factors that result in the satisfaction of certain human needs
•promotes health and individual or family growth
•accepts a person not only as he or she is now but as what he or she may become
•a caring environment is one that offers the development of potential while allowing the person to choose the best action for himself or herself at a given point in time
•caring is complementary to the science of curing
•the practice of caring is central to nursing
(http://currentnursing.com/nursing_theory/Watson.html) Watson's Theory in Literature: Critics and Comparison Watson's Caring Theory is compared to Leninger, Roach and Boykin &Schoenhoferaring Theories by McCance, McKenna and Boore (1999)
McCance, McKenna and Boore (1999) define Watson's Theory as a middle range descriptive theory
defined as less abstract than others
Barnhart etal. (1994) argues that the reader must have an understanding of a variety of subject matters to understand Watson's Theory
Talento (1995) calls Watson's Theory "simple" because it uses theories from other disciplines familiar to nurses
Sourial (1996) criticizes some of Watson's language use
(McCance et al, 1999) Utilizing Watson's Theory in Nursing Great potential for nurses due to less abstract understanding
Dual component to nursing= attitudes and activites (care)
Some aspects such as existential-phenomenological-spiritual forces by Watson may be meaningless to the clinical nurse
McCance et al. (1999) Caring in Nursing Watson's Caring Theory can be applied in all nursing settings. Theory Critique/Analysis Clarity-Watson's uses clearly defined lists (7 assumptions, 10 carative factors)(McCance et al, 1999)
Simplicity-The theory is complex and mulitdemensional, but easy to understand as it is derived from Watson's experience as a nurse, some parts abstract (Walker, 1996)
Generality-Watson's theory can be applied to all types of nursing
Empirical Precision-Watson's theory intelligently explains the basics of nursing: caring. The science of caring can be tested, the art cannot. It can be compared to other theories
Derivable Consequence (Importance)-This theory can be applied as a framework for nursing in the hospital setting for standards of care. This theory is of major importance. As healthcare advances, technology is taking place of the nurse. This theory can maintain the root of nursing. References:
cohen, J.A. (1991) Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists, leininger and watson. journal of advanced nursing, 16, 899-909.
McCance, t.v., McKenna, H.P. and Boore, J.R.P. (1999) Caring:theoretical perspectives of relevance to nursing. Journal of advanced nursing, 30(6), 1388-1395.
walker, C.A. (1995) Coalescing the theories of two nurse visionaries: parse and watson. journal of advanced nursing, 24, 988-996.
http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/index.cfm/category/80/theory.cfm click this link, then scroll down and click bottom left picture to view my video about nursing as a science and art!