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1990

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by

mustafa El Ghandour

on 17 March 2014

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Transcript of 1990

1910
1920
1930
1940
1950
1960
1970
1980
1990
2000
Somalia's
Independence
History
Britain gave British Somaliland independence on June 26, 1960.
Italy gave Italian Somaliland independence on July 1, 1960.
The Somali Republic was formed by Italian and British Somaliland uniting together into a republic.
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar became president and Abdullahi Issa formed the government of the Republic of Somalia.
In 1940, Italian and Somali soldiers invaded British Somalia. They were able to conquer Berbera.
In 1941, Britain launched an attack on Italian Somaliland and Italian Ethiopia in order to retrieve its colonial land.
A couple of months later, British Somaliland was returned to Britain.
Britain was helped by Somali soldiers "Led by Abdulahi Hassan with Somalis of the Isaaq, Dhulbahante, and Warsangali clans."
In 1948, Britain gave the Hawd ( an important farming place which had been secured by treaties between Somalia and Britain in 1886 and 1884) back because of rebels from the Somalians.
World War II
In 1956, Britain tried to buy back the Hawd and the other land it turned over during World War II.
In 1958, a public vote was held in Djibouti, which was occupied by the French. This vote would decide whether Djibouti would become a part of Somalia or stay with the French. Many Somalis voted no but the end result was a yes.
Hassan Gouled Aptidon became Djibout's first president after he made a campaign for yes votes in the 1958 public vote.
Votes and Lands
In 1976, the Somali army started dictatorship. This happened with the establishment of the Somali Revolotionalist Socialist Party.
The army stayed in command until January, 1991.
The Ogaden War took place from 1977 to 1978. It was between Somalia and Ethiopia.
Somalia started the war so that it could retrieve the land that the colonial powers had given to Ethiopia, and these lands were Somali lands.
Somalia made the Ogaden National Liberation Front so it can conquer Ogaden.
In the end, the Somalis lost.
Dictatorships and Wars
Mogadishu's Condition
In 1990, Mogadishu's citizens were not allowed to socialize in groups of more than four people.
Fuel was not enough.
The prices of pasta and khat were unbelievably high, five dollars per kilogram.
Normal meals were so expensive that you had to pay so much money just to eat a plate of pasta with some sides.
There was money thrown out onto the streets of the city because their value was too low to be used.
The electricity generators for the city had been sold.

The Present
In 2002, Bakool, Southwestern Somalia, Gedo, Jubbada Dhexe, Shabeellaha Hoose, and Jubbada Hoose announced that they each had a self government.
In 2004, the TFG (Transitional Federal Government of Somalia) met in Nairobi and made a "charter for the government of the nation." (CIA World Fact book)
The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami killed 300 people and demolished many villages.
In 2006, floods and pelting rains hit Somalia and Northern Africa.
In 1881, Resistance against Barre's government becomes revealed after he kicks out subscribers of the Isaq and Mijertyn clans from positions in the government.
A peace treaty is established with Ethiopia.
Many Somalis were dissapointed and unhappy.
Ethiopia motivated Somalia to resist its unfair and dictatorial government
This eventually led to the Somali Civil War.
Resistances
In 1920, Sheikh Uways El Barawi was murdered in Biyoley.
Land from Kenya was given to Italy. This land became the most western part of Italy protectorate.
Sheikh Aways' followers hated Mohammed Abdullah Hassan because he faced the Italians with force.
Aways' followers chased Hassan. In the end, Hassan died of influenza after he had escaped into the jungle.
Sheikh Uways El Barawi fought against the Italians who were colonizing Somalia in a peaceful way.
Italian Somaliland became a crown colony.
In 1936, some Somali parts in Ethiopia were given to Italian Somaliland to create a district of Italian Eastern Africa.
Somalia fought alongside Italy in World War II
Life under Italy's colonial rule wasn't so bad.
In fact, many families became very rich.
There weren't many revolts against Italy during the colonial rule, which meant that Italy wasn't being such a bad colonizer.

Colonies and Sheikhs
Clash of the Sheikhs
World War II
The End
P.S: The reason why 1910, 1920, and 1930 didn't have a lot of information was because I couldn't find that much information about them at ALL.
This is Sheikh Uways El Barawi
Sources (Websites)
http://www.trust.org/item/?map=key-events-in-somalias-violent-history/
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14094632
http://www.ciaworldfactbook.us/africa/somalia.html
http://abcnews.go.com/International/story?id=80454
http://www.mongabay.com/history/somalia/somalia-somalia_during_world_war_ii.html

This is Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah Hassan
This is Somalia under Italy's command
This is the Hawd.
This is Hassan Gouled Aptidon
This is Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
These are army camps that were set up during the Ogaden War
The Somali Civil War
This is how Mogadishu looked like in the 1990s.
This is some of the destruction that the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami created.
Full transcript