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In Full Bloom

Peonies and Tulips
by

Brooke Swavley

on 16 February 2015

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Transcript of In Full Bloom

Tulips belong to the Liliaceae family and are a perennial plant that blossoms in spring (Gardening Australia 2014 ). There are 75 different varieties of the wild species that are currently recognized. They have been classified into 15 different groups referred to as divisions. These divisions have been determined based mainly on plant size and flower type.
Varieties


Tulip
(Tulipa)
Flowers
In Full Bloom
Flowers are a wonderful addition to any garden. They add a sprinkle of colour and give off a sublime fragrance. Deciding which flowers to plant, to suit your taste and compliment your home, requires some research. In this presentation we have undertaken this task for you by using credible online resources, verified against strict criteria including authority, currency, accuracy and objective.

In choosing which flowers to plant you may like to know a little about their background, suitable growing conditions and the varieties available. To assist you we have

Peony
(Paeonia)

Background/Origin
The peony
(paeonia)
has an extensive and distinct history in China, Japan and Europe (Good 2013a). They were originally cultivated over 2000 years ago in China and Europe for their medicinal value. In fact, the species is named after the ancient Greek physician Paeon (Good 2013a). It was not until much later, that they were cultivated for their ornamental character.
Tulip
(Tulipa)
Background/Origin
Originating in Central Asia, the tulip
(tulipa)
is believed to have made its way from Central Asia via Turkey to Western Europe (Gardening Australia 2014). The first recorded siting of the tulip in Western Europe was in the 1550’s in Bavaria and was documented by a botanist, Conrad Gesner (Upchurch 2001). It was the Dutch
“tulipmania”
of the 1630’s that embedded it in our history and explains its popular association with Holland (Gardening Australia 2014).

Peony
(Paeonia)
Tulip
(Tulipa)
Ideal Growing conditions
Tulips grow best in a soil that is well fertilized and perform best in cold winter climates as this instigates the flowering (Royal Horticultural Society 2015). They prefer sunny spaces, though are able to tolerate some shade in a warm climate (Gardening Australia 2014). They will also perform best if sheltered from strong winds and prefer well-drained soil. If your soil has poor drainage then a raised garden bed would be more suitable (Royal Horticultural Society 2015).

References
Justification of Sources
To establish a consistent measure of credibility each online source was evaluated against four criteria: objectivity, authority, currency and accuracy (Metzger 2007, p. 2079).

Planting advice was taken from authors with non-commercial intention to ensure objectivity. Where enthusiasts have been cited, authority was recognized if they had been recommended by one or more credible source (Metzger 2007, p. 2079). For example, The Peony Society endorsed Good (2013a, 2013b). Currency was evaluated by considering when the source was published and how relevant that is to its accuracy. This is particularly important where history is concerned. For example, Upchurch (2001) was published 14 years ago yet is still a credible source because the history it reports on is unlikely to change and the New York Times is an authoritative publication. Accuracy was recognized if the source was free from errors, including up-to-date, working links and its content could be validated by a credible source (Metzger 2007, p. 2079).
Peony
(Paeonia)
Ideal Growing Conditions
The herbaceous peony (paeonia lactiflora) is a hearty perennial that blooms in late spring or early summer (The National Gardening Association 2014a). In fact, they can flourish with little to no attention in the right climate (Better Homes and Gardens 2015). They grow best when planted in neutral, well-drained soil and exposed to partial or full sunlight (The National Gardening Association 2014a). The tree peony (paeonia suffruticosa) is equally robust, favouring slightly alkaline, well-drained soil (The National Gardening Association 2014b).
Conclusion
We hope that you are one step closer to creating your beautiful garden. You should now have a clearer understanding of how to plant peonies and tulips, the varieties available and whether they would be suited to your garden. A little planning can make the difference between choosing flowers that will thrive and flowers that just survive.

Whether you choose to plant our favourite flowers or discover your own, be sure to sit back, take it all in and enjoy your garden in full bloom - after the hard work is done!


When planting, the bulb should be planted pointy side towards the surface at a distance of double the height of the bulb and the same distance apart (Royal Horticultural Society 2015).
Better Homes and Gardens 2015,
Peony
, Meredith Corporation, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://www.bhg.com/gardening/plantdictionary/perennial/peony/?name=peony&zipZone=>

Gardening Australia 2014,
Fact Sheet: Buy & Plant Bulbs
, ABC, viewed 8 January 2015, <http://www.abc.net.au/gardening/stories/s799407.htm>

Good, W 2013a,
A historical introduction
, Walter Good, viewed 11 January 2015, <http://www.paeonia.ch/welte/einfe1.htm>

Good, W 2013b,
Varieties from all over the world - an evolution over centuries (V)
, Walter Good, viewed 13 January 2015, <http://www.paeonia.ch/welte/einfe11.htm>

Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

Metzger, M 2007, ‘Making Sense of Credibility on the Web: Models for Evaluating Online Information and Recommendations for Future Research’,
Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology
, vol. 58, no. 13, pp. 2078-2091

References (contd.)

Royal Horticultural Society 2015,
Tulips
, Royal Horticultural Society, viewed
8 January 2015, <https://www.rhs.org.uk/advice/profile?PID=684>

The National Gardening Association 2014a,
Paeonia lactiflora
, The National Gardening Association, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://www.garden.org/plantfinder/index.php?q=view&id=25201&light[]=&moisture[]=&sort[]=common&sort_order[]=common&keyword[]=peony>

The National Gardening Association 2014b,
Paeonia suffruticosa
, The National Gardening Association, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://www.garden.org/plantfinder/index.php?q=view&id=25204&light[]=&moisture[]=&sort[]=botanical&sort_order[]=botanical&keyword[]=Paeonia+suffruticosa>

The Peony Society 2000,
Hybrid Peonies
, The Peony Society, viewed 13 January 2015, <http://www.peonysoc.com/hybrid%20peonies.htm>

Upchurch, M 2001,
How a Turkish Bloom Enflamed the Dutch Landscape
, The New York Times, viewed January 8 2015, <http://www.nytimes.com/2001/03/04/magazine/how-a-turkish-blossom-enflamed-the-dutch-landscape.html?pagewanted=1>



References - Images

'Anenome' [image], in Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

'Abodement' [image], in Amand, J 2015,
The Tulip Gallery
, viewed 18 January 2015, <http://www.thetulipgallery.com/view/172>

'Absalon' [image], in Amand, J 2015,
The Tulip Gallery
, viewed 18 January 2015, <http://www.thetulipgallery.com/view/173>

'Axel Torres' [image], in Amand, J 2015,
The Tulip Gallery,
viewed 18 January 2015, <http://www.thetulipgallery.com/view/743>

'Bomb' [image], in Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

'Brilliant Star' [image], in Amand, J 2015,
The Tulip Gallery,
viewed 18 January 2015,
<http://www.thetulipgallery.com/view/174>

'Double' [image], in Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

'Herbal Medicine' [image], in Healing Tree Herbal Clinic 2013,
Herbal Medicine
, Healing Tree Herbal Clinic, viewed 12 January 2015, <http://www.healingtreeherbalclinic.com/herbal-medicine/>

'Japanese' [image], in Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

‘Large Transparent White Peony Clip Art’ [image], in YoPriceVille 2015,
Free Clip Art Pictures - Flowers
, YoPriceVille, viewed 12 January 2015, <.http://gallery.yopriceville.com/Free-Clipart-Pictures/Flowers-PNG/Large_Transparent_White_Peony_Clipart#.VLrHcydlzv0>




Varieties
There are two main varieties of peony: tree (paeonia suffruticosa) and herbaceous (paeonia lactiflora). The peony flower has many forms: single, Japanese, Anenome, semi-double, bomb and double (Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012).












Peonies are also known for their ability to hybridise with each other, resulting in an extensive and growing number of species (The Peony Society 2000). The most notable of the hybrids is the Itoh peony, an intersectional cross of the tree and herbaceous varieties (Good 2013b).



Bomb
Semi-Double
Double
Single
Anenome
Japanese
(Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012)
(YoPriceVille 2015)
(Healing Tree Herbal Clinic 2013)
(YoPriceVille 2015)
(YoPriceVille 2015)
(Mr Wallpaper 2015)
The Divisions are: 1 - Single early; 2 - Double early; 3 - Triumph; 4 - Darwin hybrid; 5 - Single late; 6 - Lily-flowered; 7 - Fringed (Crispa); 8 - Viridiflora; 9 - Rembrandt; 10 - Parrot; 11- Double late; 12 - Kaufmanniana; 13 - Fosteriana (Emperor); 14 - Greigii and 15 - Miscellaneous (Royal Horticultural Society 2015).
Single early
Double early
Triumph
Lily-flowered
Fringed
Rembrandt
(The Tulip Gallery 2012)
References - Images (contd.)


'Maytime' [image], in Amand, J 2015,
The Tulip Gallery,
viewed 18 January 2015
,<http://www.thetulipgallery.com/view/396>

'Oviedo' [image], in Amand, J 2015,
The Tulip Gallery,
viewed 18 January 2015,
<http://www.thetulipgallery.com/view/428>

'Single' [image], in Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

'Semi-Double' [image], in Matthaei Botanical Gardens and Nichols Arboretum 2012,
Historic Peonies at the Arb
, University of Michigan, viewed 10 January 2015, <http://mbgna.umich.edu/peony/peonies-arb>

'Tulips Field Holland’ [image] in Mr Wallpaper 2015,
1280x1024 Tulips field Holland wallpaper,
Mr Wallpaper.com, viewed 16 January 2015, <http://www.mrwallpaper.com/view/tulips-field-holland-1280x1024/>

‘Transparent Tulips PNG Flowers Clipart’ [image], in YoPriceVille 2015, Free Clip Art Pictures - Flowers, YoPriceVille, viewed 18 January 2015, <http://gallery.yopriceville.com/Free-Clipart-Pictures/Flowers-PNG/Transparent_Tulips_PNG_Flowers_Clipart#.VLrpFUhCVyQ>

'Vase with white Peonies PNG Clipart’ [image], in YoPriceVille 2015,
Free Clip Art Pictures - Flowers
, YoPriceVille, viewed 12 January 2015, <http://gallery.yopriceville.com/Free-Clipart-Pictures/Flowers-PNG/Vase_with_White_Peonies_PNG_Clipart_Picture#.VLrJ0Sdlzv0>
References - Video

(Better Homes and Gardens 2012)
(Video Jug 2011)
Better Homes and Gardens 2012
, Gardening Tips--Growing Peonies,
16 August, viewed 15 January 2015, <URL>

Video Jug 2011,
How to plant tulips
, viewed 15 January 2015, <URL>
By Lisa Price & Brooke Swavley
presented this valuable information on two of our favourites; peonies and tulips, both of which enjoy a long history and are magnificent in full bloom.
Full transcript