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Dolphins and Fish Farms 3

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Susan Blick

on 5 December 2012

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Transcript of Dolphins and Fish Farms 3

The Effect of Fish Farms on Aquatic Ecosystems Shrimp Farms Salmon Farms Aquaculture and Marine Mammals Solutions References Delicate Ecosystems
Protect crabs, shrimp, and fish
Prevent erosion and damage from storms
(Gunawardena and Rowan, 2005) When making farms, all vegetation is removed (Flaherty and Karnjanakesorn, 1995)
Add antibiotics, chlorine, and formaldehyde (Kautsky et al., 2000)
Requires a lot of fresh, clean water (Gunawardena and Rowan, 2005) - Major salmon farms near British Columbia and Chile (Buschmann et al., 2009, Volpe, 2000)
- “open cage net pen facilities” (Buschmann et al., 2009) http://www.multiaquaculture.com/AboutUs.aspx Phosphorous Protein Poor water quality in the farms
Unnatural nutrient levels
Affects environment outside farm
(Flaherty and Karnjanakesorn, 1995) http://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/images/issues/p_aq_escapes.jpg http://www.bay.org/assets/spawning%20salmon.jpg Major issue with salmon escaping
Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are not native
In Chile, escaped salmon led to a decline in native fish species (Buschmann et al., 2009)
Considered an invasive species (Volpe et al., 2000) Dolphins http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2008/04/17/dolphin11a.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-hq9avEaQ0OM/Ta6lrMTV_0I/AAAAAAAADz0/ZgyrWfDV_VM/s1600/221.JPG http://www.oceanwideimages.com/images/16516/large/almaco-jack-70M0330-05.jpg Fish farms are changing dolphin behavior
Over fishing and habitat destruction force dolphins to migrate (MacLeod et al., 2004, Bearzi, Fortuna, and Reeves, 2008)
Dolphins attracted to fish farms because of high prey abundance (Bearzi, Fortuna, and Reeves, 2008) http://images.iop.org/objects/phw/news/16/7/22/dolphin.jpg upset balance of ecosystem and natural flow of nutrients
can increase temperature, disrupt ocean circulation, and change salinity (Harvell, 2002) Chemical Changes http://biologos.org/uploads/static-content/humpback_whale_sml.jpg http://www.njcharters.com/nj_charters_blog/uploaded_images/New-Zealand-Freshly-Harvested-Green-Lipped-Mussels-787225.jpg Nitrogen

fertility
rate Age of
Sexual Maturity http://www4.ncsu.edu/~mlkonrat/world_forestry/images/amazon-river-dolphin.jpg Salinity Mangroves Creation of Shrimp Ponds http://blog.zintro.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/aquaculture.jpg http://cdn.bikyamasr.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/aquaculture.jpg http://ocr.org/wp-content/uploads/aquaculture_Cage_NOAA.jpg What is Aquaculture? http://www.my-fish.info/sites/default/files/ggaq_bild1.png http://jonbowermaster.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/oceanblueco.jpg http-//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Americas_(orthographic_projection).svg/200px-Americas_(orthographic_projection).svg http-//24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_maknw1mFCI1qzoi69o1_500 http-//lantaoldtown.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/mangrove-uw.jpg http-//skiptonstudiesofasia.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/south-asia-political-map-20041 http-//specialtyfabricsreview.com/repository/1/5312/large_1109_sh2_1.jpg http-//www.internationalreporting.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/mangrove.jpg http-//www.sei-international.org/mediamanager/images/News/mangroves.jpg http-//www.serc.si.edu/about/images/ShrimpFarm.jpg Dangers of Fish Farms Dangerous for dolphins
equipment can harm or kill dolphins (Bearzi, Fortuna, and Reeves, 2008)
caught in nets
presence of boats (López et al., 2008)
aggression from fishermen (López, 2006b) http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_6IdvNFtio94/TSyOjm8GklI/AAAAAAAAAAQ/P5XYlELWgVA/s1600/dolphin_net.gif http://a57.foxnews.com/global.fncstatic.com/static/managed/img/U.S./660/371/JapanDolphin.jpg Indirect Consequences of Fish Farms http://scienceforkids.kidipede.com/biology/plants/seaweed/pictures/kelp.jpg Seaweed Fish Farm Structure Polyculture instead of Monoculture indicators of health of the ecosystem (Chopin et al., 2001)
remove nitrogen (Buschmann et al., 2009)
prevent nutrients from leaving the fish farm (Naylor et al., 2000)
improves water quality (Chopin et al., 2001) Update structure
Improve technology
Inputs to aquaculture
Prevent chemicals and pollutants from escaping (Chopin et al., 2001)
water use (Naylor et al., 2000)
better management of aquaculture (Islam, 2005)
Changing diet of aquaculture species (Islam, 2005) Conservation Aquaculture http://blog.nativefoods.com/.a/6a0112796f38d028a4016768969956970b-500wi Using aquaculture to help endangered species
White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in Kootenai River in Montana, Idaho, and British Columbia
wary about it because of risks involved with aquaculture
issue of genetic diversity
(Anders, 1998) http://www.montana-flyfishing.com/kootenai-river/images/pano.jpg http://greatecology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/salmon_farm.jpg farms have a combination of organisms from different tropic levels
using seaweed, filter feeders and other low trophic organisms can take nitrogen and other harmful chemicals out of the water (Neori, 2007) http://www.matrifocus.com/SAM07/images/seaweed.gif Created to meet demands for fish
economic gain for countries
connected to outside ecosystem
often destroys environment
depletes natural resources
source of disease
uses lots of chemicals What is aquaculture? http://cdn.bikyamasr.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/aquaculture.jpghttp://ocr.org/wp-content/uploads/aquaculture_Cage_NOAA.jpghttp://blog.zintro.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/05/aquaculture.jpghttp://www.my-fish.info/sites/default/files/ggaq_bild1.pnghttp://jonbowermaster.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2011/04/oceanblueco.jpg Shrimp Farms Imageshttp-//skiptonstudiesofasia.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/south-asia-political-map-20041http-//www.sei-international.org/mediamanager/images/News/mangroves.jpghttp-//lantaoldtown.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/mangrove-uw.jpghttp-//www.internationalreporting.org/wp content/uploads/2010/11/mangrove.jpghttp-//24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_maknw1mFCI1qzoi69o1_500http-//www.serc.si.edu/about/images/ShrimpFarm.jpghttp-//specialtyfabricsreview.com/repository/1/5312/large_1109_sh2_1.jpg Papers

Flaherty, Mark and Choomjet Karnjanakesorn. 1995. Marine shrimp aquaculture and natural resource degradation in Thailand. Environmental Management 19:27-37.

Gunawardena, M. and J. S. Rowan. 2005. Economic valuation of a mangrove ecosystem threatened by shrimp agriculture in Sri Lanka. Environmental Management 36:535-550.

Kautsky, Nils et al. 2000. Ecosystem perspective on management of disease in shrimp pond farming. Aquaculture 191:145-161. Salmon Farms Imageshttp-//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/ca/Americas_(orthographic_projection).svg/200px-Americas_(orthographic_projection).svghttp://www.multiaquaculture.com/AboutUs.aspxhttp://www.montereybayaquarium.org/cr/cr_seafoodwatch/content/images/issues/p_aq_escapes.jpghttp://www.bay.org/assets/spawning%20salmon.jpg Papers

Buschmann AH, et al., Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.03.002

Volpe, John P. et al. 2000. Evidence of natural reproduction of aquaculture-escaped Atlantic salmon in a coastal British Columbia river. Conservation Biology 14:899-903. Marine Mammals and Aquaculture Images

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-hq9avEaQ0OM/Ta6lrMTV_0I/AAAAAAAADz0/ZgyrWfDV_VM/s1600/221.JPG

http://www.oceanwideimages.com/images/16516/large/almaco-jack-70M0330-05.jpg

http://static.guim.co.uk/sys-images/Guardian/Pix/pictures/2008/04/17/dolphin11a.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_6IdvNFtio94/TSyOjm8GklI/AAAAAAAAAAQ/P5XYlELWgVA/s1600/dolphin_net.gif

http://a57.foxnews.com/global.fncstatic.com/static/managed/img/U.S./660/371/JapanDolphin.jpg

http://images.iop.org/objects/phw/news/16/7/22/dolphin.jpg

http://www.njcharters.com/nj_charters_blog/uploaded_images/New-Zealand-Freshly-Harvested-Green-Lipped-Mussels-787225.jpg

http://biologos.org/uploads/static-content/humpback_whale_sml.jpg

http://www4.ncsu.edu/~mlkonrat/world_forestry/images/amazon-river-dolphin.jpg Papers

Bearzi, Giovanni, Caterina Maria Fortuna and Randall R. Reeves. 2008. Ecology and conservation of common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the Mediterranean Sea. Mammal Rev. 39: 92-123.

Grange, K. and R. Cole. 1997. Mussel farming impacts. Aquaculture Update 17:1-3.

Harvell, C. Drew et al. 2002. Climate Warming and Disease Risks for Terrestrial and Marine Biota. Science 296: 2158-2162.
MacLeod, Colin D. et al. 2004. Climate change and the cetacean community of north-west Scotland. Biological Conservation 124: 477–483.

La Rosa T, et al. 2002. Impact on the water column biogeochemistry of a Mediterranean mussel and fish farm. Water Research 36:713-721.

López, Bruno Díaz. 2006b. Interactions between Mediterranean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and gillnets off Sardinia, Italy. ICES Journal of Marine Science 63: 946-951.

López, Bruno Díaz et al. 2008. Diving activity of a solitary wild free ranging bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 88:1153–1157.

Ogilvie S, Ross AH, Schiel DR. 2000. Phytoplankton biomass associated with mussel farms in Beatrix Bay, New Zealand. Aquaculture 181:71-80 Solutions Images

http://scienceforkids.kidipede.com/biology/plants/seaweed/pictures/kelp.jpg
http://greatecology.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/salmon_farm.jpg

http://blog.nativefoods.com/.a/6a0112796f38d028a4016768969956970b-500wi

http://www.montana-flyfishing.com/kootenai-river/images/pano.jpg

http://www.matrifocus.com/SAM07/images/seaweed.gif Papers

Buschmann AH, et al., Salmon aquaculture and coastal ecosystem health in Chile: Analysis of regulations, environmental impacts and bioremediation systems. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2009.03.002

Chopin, Thierry et al. 2001. Integrating seaweeds into marine aquaculture systems: a key toward sustainability. J. Phycol. 37:975-986.

Islam, Md. Shahidul. 2005. Nitrogen and phosphorous budget in coastal and marine cage aquaculture and impacts of effluent loading on ecosystem: review and analysis towards model development. Marine Pollution Bulletin 50:48-61.
Naylor, Rosamond L. et al. 2000. Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017-1024.

Neori, Amir, et al. 2007. The need for a balanced ecosystem approach to blue revolution aquaculture. Environment 49:36-43.

Anders, Paul J. 1998. Conservation aquaculture and endangered species: can objective science prevail over risk anxiety? Fisheries 23:28-31. Nitrogen Chlorophyll a (La Rosa et al. , 2002) (Grange and Cole, 1997; Ogilvie et al., 2000)
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