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Transcript of Observation method
Audrey Croes, Ardshir Khazan, Deniss Korotkevics Factors that will determine the choice
of participant observer role Issues related to validity and
reliability Participant observation
What is it? Data collection and analysis Ecological validity •Full participation in the research circumstances
•Has its roots from social anthropology in Chicago
•Purpose is to discover delicate and special nuances Modern or structural observation Off-the-shelf coding
schedule Coding schedule problem -It can be not suitable for your group That is why it should answer on these questions 1) Are the meanings of codes to used transparent and have you written these down? 2) Are the codes you have developed flexible enough in practice to be applied across different settings? Do not be in a hurry because: Coding schedule and
answers should be summarized Meeting can help
you to make
decisions Interactions varies by
the nature of the
group Everything should be calculated Informant error Time error Issues related to
reliability information can be
not reliable select your sample of informants making the research,
collected data can be already insufficient -The purpose of your research -Your status -The purpose of your research -The degree to which you feel suited to participant observation -Organisational access -Ethical considerations Note making and recording data Data collection Other ways of conducting observation and collecting data Data analysis -Primary
-Experiential -Descriptive observation
-Focused observation -Technology Observer
error Observer bias Observer
effect Solutions Observer bias Observer effect Minimal interaction
Habituation Informant verification
-Covert-Overt Advantages Disadvantages Advantages and disadvantages of participant observation -It is good at explaining ‘what is going on’ in particular social situations. -It heightens the researcher’s awareness of significant social processes. and... -Virtually all data collected are useful. -It can be very time-consuming. -It can pose serious ethical dilemmas for the researchers. -Access to organizations may be difficult. Collecting primary data thought observation Observation role Previously: neglect aspect of research Now: became more popular and useful Types of observation Participant observation Structured observation 4 types of participant observation •Complete participant - becoming a member of a group and... •Complete observer - studying behaviour in different places and situations
•Observer-as-participant - has little contact with people whom observe
•Participant-as-observer - both take and reveal your purpose of researcher ‘’Off-the-shelf’’ Advantages & disadvantages -anyone
-yield highly reliable
-capable of more
-data will remain unchanged
- Secure data research setting
-Slow & expensive