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Filipino - American War and the Imposition of American Rule

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joel melendres

on 12 March 2014

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Transcript of Filipino - American War and the Imposition of American Rule

Filipino Soldiers outside Manila in 1899
The Philippine–American War, also known as the Philippine War of Independence or the Philippine Insurrection (1899–1902)
The Philippine–American War
"Shots fired"
- February 4 1899, an American Soldier in the name of Private William W. Grayson along with another soldier named Orville Miller encountered three armed Filipino soldier who crossed the bridge of San Juan in Manila.

Reaction of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo
"The firing on our side the night before had been against my order." - Gen. Aguinaldo

"The Calm before the Storm"
1898 - Influx of American troops in the Philippines increased its strength by building "territorial" borders in vital places in the country
Filipino - American War and the Imposition of American Rule
- was an armed conflict between Filipino revolutionaries and the government of the United States which arose from the struggle of the First Philippine Republic to gain independence in the hands of the United States.
- Instructions from American officers of a shoot-out order to any Filipino combatant who would trespass the American controlled areas.

- After the First Battle of Manila and the surrender of the city to American forces by the Spanish, General Aguinaldo demanded occupation of a line of blockhouses on the Zapote Line, General Otis initially refused this, but later said that he would not object unless overruled by higher authority.
- Aguinaldo was away in Malolos when the conflict started, Aguinaldo wanted to avoid open conflict with the Americans while maintaining his position of leadership.
Reaction of Gen. Elwell Otis
"Fighting having begun, must go on to the grim end." - Gen. Otis
Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo's Pledge
"It is my duty to maintain the integrity of our national honor, and that of the army so unjustly attacked by those, who posing as our friends, attempt to dominate us in place of the Spaniards."
"Therefore, for the defense of the nation entrusted to me, I hereby order and command: Peace and friendly relations between the Philippine Republic and the American army of occupation are broken—and the latter will be treated as enemies with the limits prescribed by the laws of War."
The Filipino troops had been caught unprepared and leaderless, as their generals had gone home to their families for the weekend.
The Battle
a British citizen who had immigrated to America. Had enlisted as a volunteer soldier in Lincoln, Nebraska
The American soldiers, in contrast, were ready and needed only to follow previously prepared planning.

The Battle
was a United States of America General who served in the Philippines late in the Spanish-American War and during the Philippine-American War.
The next day, Brigadier General Arthur MacArthur ordered an American advance.
was a United States Army general. He became the military Governor-General of the American-occupied Philippines in 1900
The battle of February 5 was the biggest and bloodiest of the war.
American casualties totaled 238, of whom 44 were killed in action or died from wounds.
Filipino casualties as 4,000, of whom 700 were killed.
The high casualty figures are due largely to the Americans use of artillery, warships and firearms.
The Imposition of American Rule
The first government established by America in the Philippines was the Military Government. (August 26, 1898) some few days after the Mock battle of Manila on August 13 1898.
As the Filipino American Progress, the Philippines was ruled by the President of the United States (President McKinley) in his capacity as Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces.
General Wesley Merrit - appointed as the first Military Governor
General Elwell Otis - succeeded the position in the late 1898
General Arthur MacArthur - served from 1900 - 1901
In its brief existence Military Governement..
- established Supreme Court composed of Filipinos and Americans.
Cayetano Arellano was appointed as the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
- Lower Courts were established
- Organizations of towns and provincial governments that has been
filled in by local elected officials.
- Taught Filipinos how to speak and write in english.
Sovereignty
- after the Treaty of Paris, President McKinley issued the so-called "Benevolent Assimilation" signed on December 21 1898.
- He sent the Schurmann Commission to make the necessary studies on the conditions of the country and to recommend the kind of government to be established in the Philippines.
- Some of the recommendations were, to abolish the military government and establish a Civil Government, and the opening of public elementary schools.
- President McKinley also established the Taft Commission then known as the Philippine Islands under the sovereign control of the United States.
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