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Heather Livingood

on 3 September 2014

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Transcript of Egypt

By: Megan O' Leary and Heather Livingood
3 Kingdoms
Population Map

Egypt was know as one of the fountian heads of Western Culture. Where the Egyptian civilization began is uncertain but many believe that the Nile River people were influenced by the the culture of the Near East. The first hieroglyphics were dated back to around 3200 BCE
Egypt is 1,002,000 square kilometers. It is 1,024 kilometers from north to south, and 1,240 kilometers from east to west.
Egypt is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea in the North and in the East by the Red Sea. The Nile River goes right through Egypt. The Nile is the only river in Egypt, it has two branches Rosetta and Damietta Rivers. Egypt is divided into 4 different regions: The Nile Valley, The Abarian Desert, The Libyan Desert, The Sinai. Almost 95% of Egypt is desert. Some of the deserts are: Libyan, Arabian, Nubian, and Sahara deserts. The Sahara Desert covers most of Egypt.
Geography Cont.
*The capital of Egypt is Cairo.
* Egypt is 50 ft. below sea level
* Highest point is Jabal Katrina which is 8,668 ft. above sea level, lowest point is Qattara Depression 436 ft. below sea level
*5 oases in Egypt:Farafirah, Bahriah, Dakhilia, Kharijah, and the Siwah.
*Egypt is 386,662 square miles.
Pictures of Geography
Egypt has a very hot and dry climate. It has 2 main seasons, a very hot summer and a very mild winter. Summer lasts from May to October and the average tempurature is 95 degrees Fahrenheit. Winters last from November to April the average tempurature is 45 degrees Fahrenheit. Average rainfall in Egypt is around 7.9 inches a year. The most rainfall occurs in the winter seasons.
Religion of Egypt
*Egypt's official religion is Islam.
*Although the official religion is Islam, around 95% of Egypt's population is Muslim.
* Ancient Egyptians were polytheistic, some of their gods include: Amun, Ra, Osiris, Ptah, Bast, Khnum, Muut, Nuut, Sobek and Anubis
*Everything in the Egyptian religion is connected to nature in some way or another, especially in relation to the Nile River.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
my love and my heart are for thee.
My homeland, my homeland, my homeland,
my love and my heart are for thee.
Biladi Biladi Biladi
Laki Hubbi Wa Fuadi
Biladi Biladi Biladi
Laki Hubbi Wa Fuadi
-Nile Crocodiles live by the Nile River Valley.
-Birds such as the Ibis were very important in Ancient Egypt.
- Some animals that live in the deserts of Egypt are: camels, sand cats, desert foxes, snakes (Saw-Scaled Vipers and Sand Boas) and scorpions.
-Cats have been important in Egypt since ancient times: caracal, sand cat, swamp cat, cheetah, and panther.
The vegetation of Egypt varies by eco-region.
-Western Desert: no plant life, perennials and grasses are found by water.
-Coastal Strip: rich plant life (reeds and marsh).
-Eastern Desert: varied vegetation such as thorny shrubs, small succulents, and herbs.
-Nile: water plants (such as lotus), over 100 grasses (bamboo, esparto), reeds, and palms.
The two main natural resources of Egypt today are oil (mainly out of the Mediterranean seabed) and gas. Other resources include iron ore, phosphate, limestone, manganese, talc, and zinc.
The main natural resource in Ancient Egypt was the Nile River. It gave the people transportation and fish. It also flooded annually, fertilizing the land and crops. They also had used the rocks and minerals.
GDP: 229.53 billion U.S. dollars
Main exports: natural gas and non-petroleum products (clothes, cotton textiles, medical products, citrus fruits, rice, dried onion, steel, cement, and ceramics).
Main imports: pharmaceuticals, wheat, maize, cars, and car spare parts.
Italy and the U.S. are the top export partners while the U.S. and China are the top import partners with Egypt.
Currency: Egyptian pound. $1 in the United States is equal to 5.95 Egyptian pounds.
- External: $32.12 billion in 2008.
- Public: 86.5% of GDP in 2008.
Cairo, Egypt is the capital city. It is located in the northeastern part of the country, along the Nile River.
Cairo has the largest metropolitan area in the Arab world as well as in Africa. The metropolitan area is the 10th largest in the world.
Cairo has a population of 6.76 million people and is 453 square kilometers, or 175 square miles.
Family Life
-The central of social organization is marriage.
-As an Egyptian, you are expected to get married and have children to continue on your family line.
-The head of the household is the father while the mother manages it. Some mothers in Egypt today work.
-Children have to show respect for adults and have responsibilities at a young age.
Most live in apartments unless wealthy.
People live with their parents until marriage.
12 years of formal education which is very important.
There is a test taken that determines which college they qualify for.
The Islamic religion does not encourage dating, so lower class marriages are often arranged.
When a child is born, it is a very big event. It is marked by the slaughter of an animal- one for girls and two for boys.
-The central of social organization is marriage.
-As an Egyptian, you are expected to get married and have children to continue on your family line.
-The head of the household is the father while the mother manages it. Some mothers in Egypt today work.
-Children have to show respect for adults and have responsibilities at a young age.
Social Life
Cultural Traditions
Modern Culture
Red: time before the Revolution (struggle against monarchy and the British).
White: bloodless nature of the revolution.
Black: end of the oppression at the hands of the monarchy and foreign imperialism.
*Ethnicity: 98% Egyptian, 2% other (Greek, Armenian, other European, Nubian)
*Literacy rate: overall 72%, males 80.3%, female 63.5%. Ages 10 and up can read.
*Life expectancy in 2010 was 73.2 years.
Clothes: lightweight, high
waistbands, hieroglyphics are seen
in dresses and accessories.
Food: bread (pita), humus, onions, beans, kebabs.
* 3 kingdoms: Old (2755-2255 BCE) Middle (2134-1784 BCE) New (1551-1524 BCE)
* Old kingdom: Capital was Memphis. The rulers had absolute power over a strongly unified country.
*Pharaohs were considered gods on earth.
*First step pyramid was built.
*Menkaure was an ancient Egyptian King during the 4th century.
Music: One popular artist is Al Shaabi. This genre of music is a mix of electro, hip hop, Sufi, and folk.
Sports: The most popular sport is football (soccer). The national football team is the Pharaohs, they have won the Africa Cup of Nations seven times. Basketball, handball, tennis, and volleyball are also popular.
People: The president of Egypt is Mohamed Morsi, the prime minister is Hesham Kandil. Adel Imam is a very famous actor and comedian.
* Cairo is the center of Egypt's economy.
*32% of people work in agriculture, 17% work in industry, 51% work in services.
* Some of the most common crops are cotton, rice, and corn. Animals include water buffalo, sheep and goats.
*Popular industries include, textiles, tourism, food processing, and pharmaceuticals.
*The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world.
*Most of the ancient buildings were made of stone.
*When pillars were finished an artist would decorate the tops of them.
*As soon as a Pharaoh was named construction of his tomb would begin. The building continued until the day the Pharaoh died, making for a wide variety in designs.
*Architecture was based on perpendicular designs and inclined planes, and concentrated on balance.
*The Egyptian cultures date back to the time of the pharaohs.
*Egypt is considered the most attractive country, and the most culturally rich.
*Egyptian people do not eat pork.
*Practice the holy day of Ramadan, it is a time of fellowship.
*Egyptians are very hospitable, when you are invited to the home of an Egyptian it is customary to reject the first invitation.
*Egyptians value family time above all else, so playing games, or going places together is mandatory.
*Lasted nearly 500 years.
*Known for monumental architecture.
*The Pharaohs of this time demanded a very large amount of wealth and moved their capital near to their home in Delta.
*Thebes remained a cultural and spiritual center.
New Kingdom
*The Middle Kingdom began when Nebhepetre Mentuhotep II reunited Upper and Lower Egypt.*Thebes served as the capital.*Mentuhotep's complex was built and was an outstanding monument of this time.
*Social life in ancient Egypt was much different than it is now.
*On the top was the Pharaohs and Vizier, then high priests, and nobles, followed by priests and doctors. Then scribes, craftsmen, and at the bottom were farmers, soldiers, and tomb builders.
*There is no longer that type of strict system, but today people know there places in classes.
sand cat
Sand Boa
*The Pharaoh was considered the supreme power of Ancient Egypt.
*The current president is Mohamed Morsi, who was elected in 2012 and is of an independent party.
*The current prime minister is Hesham Kandil. He entered office in August 2012.
*The style of government is Arab Republic.
*It is semi-presidential, meaning that the president and the prime minister are both active leaders.
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