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Ethnography of Communication
Transcript of Ethnography of Communication
It allows "to discern patterns proper to speech" which gives a frame of refrence
This will then act as a "resource upon which members of the community draw" Interested in holistic explanation of meaning and behavior Goals: Time Line After WWII there was a high concern for saving native language and understanding languages throug different lensence.
In the 50s &60s the focus narrowed to Anthropology and Language
After the 60s the research seemed to explore language through culture
Eventually Ethnography of communication arrived in educational research Hymes uses the SPEAKING grid to identify relevant factors in a communicative event: S setting scene
E ends : purposes, aims and goals, outcomes
A act sequence : message, form, and content
K key : manner and tone
I instrumentalities : channel (verbal-non-verbal, physical) forms of speech of the community
N norms of interaction and interpretation
G genre : text categories: telling story Ethnography of Communication Our Studies: Content learning through Ethnomathematics Critiques: Researchers tend to objectify or essentialize people, cultures, and practices Cultural complexity and evolution within any speech community Issues of validity Practical and rhetorical issues connected with publishing and short articles, and regarding the forms, voices, and genres of ethnographic writing Speech Code Theory 1. How can someone learn and report culturally distinctive ways of communicating that one encounters in a given social world?
2. How do cultural codes of communicative conduct shape and motivate the way people communicate with each other and make sense of self and others?
3. How and why do culturally distinctive codes of communicative conduct have the meaning-generating and motivating power that they have? John Gumperz Is the combination of anthropology and linguistics ”patterns of communication are part of cultural knowledge and behaviour, this entails a recognition of both the diversity of communicative possibilities and practises and the fact that such practises are integrated part of what we know and do as members of a particular culture” (Schiffrin,1994, p.137) "The ethnography of communication aims at describing the form and functions of verbal and non-verbal communicative behavior in particular cultural or social settings" (Torabi,2004, p.36) "If our concern is social relevence and social realism, we must recognize that there is more to the relationship between sound and meaning than is dreamt of in normal linguistic theory" (Hymes, 1975, p.3) Communicative Competent I. What is formally possible in language?
II. What is feasible in the language concerned?
III. What is appropriate according to the socio-cultural setting?
IV. What is technically known as attestedness and the collocations?
V. How to interpret paralanguage, understanding pragmatic intention and distinguish different genres. Non-verbal communication Methods Fieldnotes
Understanding ones reflexivity
Interviews Research in Literacy Practices of Newcomer Families He believed that "it is rather that it is not linguistics, but ethnography-not language, but communication-which must provide the frame of refrence within which the place of language in culture and society is to be described" (Hymes, 1964, p.3) Edward Sapir Only linguist trained by Franz Boas (father of american anthropology)
Linguist "must become increseangly concern with the many anthropological, sociological, and psychological problems which invade the field of language" (cited in Hymes, 1964, p.1) Ethnography of Communication data can not be isolated to a transcript
audio taping is not enough Sapir, E. (1927) Speech as a personality trait
Stern, T. (1931) Meaning and change of meaning Devereux, G. (1951) Mohave Indian verbal and motor profanitiy
Lounsbury, F (1956) A semantic analysis of the Pawnee kinship usage Hymes, D. (1962) The ethnography of speaking
Frake, C. (1964) How to ask for a drink in Subanun
Reisman, K. (1970) Cultural and linginguistic ambiguity in a West Indian village Heath, S. (1983) Ways with words
Philipsen, G. (2009) Researching Culture in Contexts of Social Interaction: An Ethnographic Approach, a Network of Scholars, Illustrative Moves Activity: Get in to three groups, each group will be assigned a key concept to focus on:
group #1 SPEAKING grid
group #2 Communicative Competent
group #3 Non-verbal communication References: Duff, P. (2002). The discursive co-construction of knowledge, identity, and difference: An ethnography of communication in the high school mainstream. Applied Linguistics, 23(3), 289-322.
Hymes, D. (1964). Introduction: Toward ethnographies of communication. In J. J. Gumperz & D. Hymes (Eds.), The ethnography of communication (Vol. 66). Menasha: American Anthropological
Hymes, D. (1964). Toward ethnographies of communication: The analysis of communicative events. In P. P. Giglioli (Ed.), Language and social context. Middlesex: Penguin Books.
Philipsen, G. (2011). Gerry Philipsen Retrieved March 24th, 2011, from http://gerryphilipsen.com
Schiffrin, D. (1994). Approaches to discourse. Oxford: Blackwell.
Torabi, M. A. (2004). Linguistics and ethnography of communication. Journal of faculty letters and humanities 47(190), 35-45.