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Transcript of Sustainable Tourism
enquiry. political economy
perspective discourses of colonialism, globalisation and development 'tourism has been accused of leading to the bastardisation of local cultures through the commodification of traditional cultural activities' (McKercher 1993, p. 12) 'tourism which is economically viable but does not destroy the resources on which the future of tourism will depend, notably the physical environment and the social fabric of the host community' (Teo 2002, p. 460) “tourism...represents perhaps the largest movement of human populations outside wartime” (Crick 1989, p.310)
tourism is a world industry and a contributing feature of the globalisation processes. the increased ability for 'mass tourism' has created this industry that relies on the capability and desire of the mass middle class to travel. a critical perspective cultural erosion colonialism development "if tourism is to merit its pseudonym of being 'the hospitality industry', it must look beyond its own doors and employees to consider the social and cultural impacts it is having on the host commuity at large" (Murphey 1985, cited in Brut & Courtney 1999, p. 494) “tourism is a form of experience packaged to prevent real contact with others” (Crick 1989, p.308) “what if anything has actually changed in the West's way of relating to the third world?” (Crick 1989, p.324) tourism as a strategy of development “areas of one's country are given over to the pleasure of foreigners, and the rhetoric of development serves as a defence” (Crick 1989, p.323) instability of the industry and economic inequality a positive outlook Tourism generates income, which is able to sustain traditional culture, e.g. historical sites Erosion of gender segregation/inequality Raising of cultural awareness conclusion "Tourism provides socioeconomic benefits at one extreme and dependency and reinforcement of social discrepancies at the other extreme” (Burns & Holden 1995, cited in Brunt & Courtney 1999, p.495) World Tourism Organisation Global Code of ethics for Tourism b siness. des gn. sus ainable importance of eco-tourism started: “In December 1998, the United Nations Environmental Programme published the first report on tourism eco-labels (UNEP 1998), which welcomed them and encouraged governments and NGO’s to develop them further.” (Buckley 2000) (Image Source: Hospitality Times) sustainable tourism "The sole responsibility of business was to generate profit for shareholders the idea that businesses’ responsibility extends beyond this has existed for decades and is most frequently encountered in the concept of corporate social responsibility." (Carroll, 1999). (Image Source: Green Savings Network) is marketed to promote travelling to certain destinations with minimal impact to the environment. Malaysia: Truly Asia Campaign New Zealand: 100% Pure New Zealand (Image Source: Tourism Malaysia) (Image Source: New Zealand.com) q) Ecotourism developments should be supply-led. Availability of land, water, labour, access and power supply should determine the site and the scale of projects, so that unrealistic developments are not followed by expensive requests for road access, water supply, etc. i) Development at ecotourism sites should be based upon the natural attractions of the sites, so that they are appropriate to the environment. d) Different states should emphasize different attractions for ecotourism such as caves, fishing, mountains, or forests, to reduce competition for a limited tourism market. This specialization should be used to reduce or eliminate competition for tourism revenue among Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. (Source: unescap.org) (Source: unescap.org) (Source: Tourism Malaysia) films produced in New Zealand other examples of sustainable tourism in NZ Technology: Air NZ with the installation of new winglets to its 767 fleet to reduce fuel emissions. 30% of land set aside as reserves and heritage sites with 13 national parks. The New Zealand Wine Company, producers of Grove Mill and Sanctuary wines, is the first company in the world to offer carbon neutral wine. “UN Under-Secretary General and UNEP Executive Director, Achim Steiner stating, "New Zealand is among a handful of countries committed to accelerating a transition to a low carbon and carbon-neutral economy." (NZ Tourism Press Release) Summary of aspects that need to be considered: (Sustaining Tourism 2011) In order to develop sustainable tourism some key areas to consider include: sound financial and business planning environmental management sensitivity to cultural and social dynamics efficient management, training and customer service consideration and inclusion of all stakeholders long term vision and good joined-up governance marketing and communications programs to showcase the positive elements conclusion “If principles of sustainable tourism are not put into action, then each one of these destinations will lose their appeal, environmental beauty and ultimately, their profitability.” (Sustaining Tourism 2011) sustainable tourism
+ design sustainable hotel industry aims to: sustain local culture local history self-sustainability of the place you visit “A ‘real holiday’ as one which met the clients’ expectations whilst acting for the mutual financial advantage of the tour operator and host country, but leaving the environment unspoiled.”
(Cater 1994, p. 114) 'touch the earth lightly' "addresses certifications such as the United States Green Building Council’s Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design" (Fairmont, 2011) “If there are distinct local, traditional or historical architectural styles already developed in the area, these should be incorporated into tourist facility designs to the greatest extent possible so that these facilities fit into the local environment, reinforced the architectural character of the area, and impart a distinct sense of place to the facility development.” (Inskeep 1991, p. 320) (Image source: e-architect.co.uk) (Image source: ventasalud.com) (Image source: inhabitat.com) (Image source: designboom.com) (Image source: indesignlive.com) (Image source: theage.com.au) (Image source: fairmont.com) how to sustainability through architecture sustainability through pledges sustainability through practices sustainability through choices Responsible tourist: (Masters, 2006) (Image source: scandichotels.com) (Image source: scandic-campaign.com/betterworld/index.asp?languageid=en) (Image source: scandichotels.com) "initiatives to promote sustainable social development" (Scandic Hotels 2011) (Image source: tourism.australia.com) (Image source: tourism.australia.com) (Image source: globalstewards.org) (Image source: travelocity.com) 1. Drink water desalinated at your resort rather than imported water. 2. Take all batteries and plastic home with you for disposal. 3. Offset your air travel by using companies such as www.climatecare.org 4. Minimise the use of air conditioning 5. Keep the use of running water in your room to a minimum – water is still expensive to desalinate, which uses fossil fuel to do so. 6. When diving or snorkelling do not touch, feed or otherwise interfere with the fish and coral. 7. Ask for your towels not to be rewashed every day. 8. Don’t purchase turtle-shell products. "What design can and must do is the proposal of a new life image and lifestyle that is compatible with the environment in daily life, home life, global life, and life in the workplace." (Ekuan, cited in Margolin, 1998) conclusion ‘As we face huge uncertainties about our future climate, energy supply, water supply, the viability of the ‘continuous growth’ paradigm of the global economy, and rising costs of rapidly depleting resources, it would be wise to carefully assess our vulnerability in various future scenarios.’ (Freney 2009, p. 238) (Image source: creativeroots.org) (Image source: chemeqtechnologies.com) (Image source: missrejig.files.wordpress.com) (Image source: victorialodging.com) responsible tourism (Image source: o5.com) (Image source: greekislands-beautifulgreece.blogspot.com) (Image source: the loveliestday.com) (Image source: toonpool.com) (Image source: redrockssoapbox.com) (Image source: 1.bp.blogspot.com) (Image source: dailytelegraph.com.au) (Image source: worldvision.org) (Image source: unwto.org) (Image source: scandic-campaign.com/betterworld/index.asp?languageid=en (Image source: rosewing.com) (Image source: wildasia.org) (Image source: Tim Laman) (Image source: Tourism Malaysia (Images source: imdb.org) (Image source: New Zealand Tourism)