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30 Years of AIDS - A Timeline

Highlighting key events in 30 years of AIDS

Jean Paul Bervoets

on 13 June 2011

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Transcript of 30 Years of AIDS - A Timeline

1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 30 YEARS OF AIDS A TIMELINE OF MILESTONES IN THE AIDS RESPONSE On June 5, in the 'Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report' (MMWR), the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reports a rare form of pneumonia in five men, which is later determined to be the first published cases of AIDS. CDC introduces the term Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, or AIDS, as a replacement for Gay-Related Immune Deficiency (GRID).

AIDS is reported in several European countries.

A fatal wasting disease, known locally as ‘slim’, is becoming increasingly common in South West Uganda. French researchers isolate a virus, dubbed LAV, that kills CD4 cells in a patient with AIDS. Along with a similar discovery by U.S. scientists in 1984, involving an isolated virus dubbed HTLV-III, the primary cause of AIDS is confirmed.

The Advisory Committee of People With AIDS releases The Denver Principles, officially launching the self-empowerment movement among people living with HIV/AIDS.

Three thousand AIDS cases have been reported in the USA; one thousand have died. San Francisco bathhouses are ordered shut, with similar efforts in other major metropolitan areas.

Scientists identify HIV (initially called HTLV-III or LAV) as the cause of AIDS.

The first AIDS research project in Africa, ‘Project SIDA’ is launched in Kinshasa, DRC.

Western scientists become aware that AIDS is widespread in parts of Africa. FDA approves the first HIV antibody test, and blood banks begin screening for HIV.

First International AIDS Conference is held in Atlanta, with AIDS reported in 51 nations.

AIDS is found in China, and has therefore been seen in all regions of the world.

Western scientists debate whether "slim disease" in Uganda is a new syndrome or identical to AIDS. More than 38,000 cases of AIDS have been reported from 85 countries.

The International Committee on the Taxonomy of Viruses drops the names LAV and HTLV-III and officially adopts HIV as the name of the virus that causes AIDS.

The U.S. Surgeon General publishes his first report on AIDS, the government's first major statement on what the nation should do to prevent the spread of HIV. President Kaunda of Zambia announces that his son has died of AIDS.

The first antiretroviral drug, Retrovir, is approved by the FDA.

The AIDS Memorial Quilt displayed on the National Mall in Washington, DC, for first time.

President Ronald Reagan mentions the word "AIDS" in public for the first time. The World Health Organization (WHO) declares the first World AIDS Day on December 1.

FDA approves Videx (didanosine, ddI) and allows people with life-threatening diseases to import unapproved drugs.

The Office of the U.S. Surgeon General mails a booklet, Understanding AIDS, to every household in the United States—nearly 107 million copies. Activists work with National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Anthony Fauci to endorse "parallel track," whereby people living with HIV/AIDS who don't qualify for clinical trials can access experimental treatments.

FDA approves ganciclovir for CMV and aerosolized pentamidine for PCP. AZT becomes the first drug approved for children.

The Americans with Disabilities Act is enacted, barring discrimination against people with disabilities, including people living with HIV/AIDS.

There are an estimated 5,500,000 HIV cases in Africa and more than 650,000 estimated AIDS cases. Basketball legend Magic Johnson reveals he is HIV positive.

The red ribbon makes its debut.

International AIDS Conference is moved from Boston to Amsterdam in protest over the U.S. ban on HIV-positive immigrants.

Ten million people around the world are HIV positive.

Thailand launches Asia’s most extensive HIV prevention programme. AIDS becomes No. 1 cause of death for men in U.S. between ages 25 to 44.

In the US, both the Democratic and Republican national conventions feature speakers living with HIV.

Hivid (zalcitabine, ddC) approved by FDA. President Bill Clinton creates the White House Office of National AIDS Policy.

CDC expands its definition of AIDS to include HIV-positive people with fewer than 200 CD4 cells; cervical cancer included as an AIDS-defining cancer.

An estimated 9 million adults in sub-Saharan Africa are infected with HIV, with 1.7 million AIDS cases.

The recorded number of HIV infections in South Africa grows by 60% in two years. U.S. Public Health Service recommends AZT during pregnancy, after a study a shows 70 percent reduction in HIV transmission rate.

FDA approves Zerit (stavudine, d4T).

AIDS becomes No. 1 cause of death for men and women in U.S. between ages 25 to 44. The Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS) is created.

There are an estimated 1.9 million new infections in sub-Saharan Africa.

The first protease inhibitor, saquinavir, is approved in record time. The FDA also approves Epivir (lamivudine, 3TC). At the 11th International AIDS Conference, numerous studies highlight the lifesaving potential of combination therapy. Renowned researcher David Ho also suggests drug combos may cure HIV with just a few years of treatment.

The first non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, Viramune (nevirapine), is approved by the FDA, as are the first viral load test and the protease inhibitors Crixivan (indinavir) and Norvir (ritonavir).

The number of new AIDS cases declines for the first time in the history of the U.S. epidemic. Number of AIDS deaths continues to fall in the United States, whereas reports of treatment combo side effects and adherence problems are on the rise.

Around 22 million people are living with HIV worldwide.

Fela Kuti, Nigeria’s most famous musician dies of Kaposi’s Sarcoma, an AIDS-related illness.

FDA approves first multiple-drug tablet: Combivir, containing Retrovir and Epivir. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issues first set of federal HIV treatment guidelines.

HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa account for 70% of infections worldwide.

At the 12th International AIDS Conference, attention focuses on the need for treatment access in developing nations. Treatment Action Campaign is formed in South Africa. Scientists map out the likely cause of HIV: A form of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) from the common chimpanzeePan troglodytes, which likely entered human populations earlier in the 20th century, probably as a result of the bush meat trade.

AIDS becomes No. 4 cause of death worldwide.

The South African President, Thabo Mbeki, disputes the efficacy of Western AIDS drugs, claiming that AZT is toxic. An International AIDS Conference is held in Africa for the first time.

U.S. and U.N. declare AIDS national security risks.

UNAIDS, WHO and other groups strike deals with major pharmaceutical companies to provide reduced-cost treatment in developing world.

HIV drug resistance testing becomes standard-of-care to help people living with HIV make better treatment decisions.

President Mbeki withdraws from the "does HIV cause AIDS” debate after causing much controversy. Generic manufacturers begin providing large-scale, low-cost access to HIV meds in developing world.

The first U.N. General Assembly on AIDS, or UNGASS, is convened.

Nkosi Johnson, who famously fought for the rights of HIV positive people in South Africa, dies of AIDS aged twelve.

It is estimated that 4.7 million South Africans are HIV-positive, including 24.5% of pregnant women. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria is launched.

UNAIDS reports that women make up half of all adults living with HIV worldwide. HIV is also found to be leading cause of death worldwide among men and women 15 to 59 years of age.

OraQuick Rapid HIV test is approved, allowing HIV antibody testing in as little as 20 minutes using blood from a finger prick.

Botswana begins Africa’s first national AIDS treatment programme. The U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR, is launched by President George W. Bush.

The “3 by 5” campaign is launched to widen access to AIDS treatment.

Major vaccine trials, started several years earlier, report poor results.

FDA approves Fuzeon (enfuvirtide), the first HIV fusion inhibitor. PEPFAR begins first round of funding.

First saliva-based rapid HIV test approved.

After much hesitancy, South Africa begins to provide free antiretroviral treatment.

Uganda has reduced its HIV prevalence by 70% since the early 1990s. A rapidly progressive, multiple-drug-resistant strain of HIV is transmitted in New York City, setting off fears of a super virus.

Nelson Mandela announces that his eldest son has died of AIDS.

The G8 summit leaders promise to double aid to Africa and to ensure near universal access to antiretroviral treatment worldwide by 2010. First one-pill-a-day HIV medication approved.

Circumcision is shown to reduce HIV infection among heterosexual men.

28% of people in developing countries who need treatment for HIV are receiving it.

Annual global spending on AIDS in low- and middle-income countries is $8.9 billion.

It is estimated that $14.9 billion would be needed for a truly effective response. Around 33 million people are living with HIV, according to revised estimates.

First integrase inhibitor, Isentress (raltegravir), approved by FDA. The agency also approves its first entry inhibitor, the CCR5 blocker Selzentry (maraviroc).

Botswana has succeeded in cutting its mother-to-child transmission rate to under 4% - a rate comparable with the USA and Western Europe. CDC revises estimates of new HIV infections in the U.S. to more than 56,000 a year—substantially higher than the previous estimate of 40,000 annual new infections.

U.S. Congress reauthorizes PEPFAR for five years, while also voting to end theHIV travel and immigration ban.

The UNAIDS annual report describes a stabilisation of most epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. The U.S. Global Health Initiative (GHI) is launched by President Barack Obama, which includes PEPFAR and additional funds for other diseases.

4 million people in developing and transitional countries are receiving treatment for HIV; 9.5 million are still in immediate need of treatment. An estimated 34 million people were living with HIV in 2010.

The United States, South Korea, China and Namibia lift their travel bans for people living with HIV.

The CAPRISA 004 microbicide trial is hailed a success after results show the gel reduced the risk of HIV infection by 40%. United States National Institutes of Health show that if an HIV-positive person adheres to an effective antiretroviral therapy regimen, the risk of transmitting the virus to their uninfected sexual partner can be reduced by 96%.

On June 5, the world commemorates 30 years of AIDS. Pre 1970s 1970s HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) probably transfers to humans in Africa between 1884 and 1924.

HIV probably enters Haiti around 1966. HIV probably enters the United States around 1970.

African doctors see a rise in opportunistic infections.

Western scientists and doctors remain ignorant of the growing epidemic. Sources:

Assembled by @JPBervoets
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