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Repeated Reading

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Joanna Schveder

on 30 September 2014

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Transcript of Repeated Reading

Repeated Reading

Reading is a fundamental skill that every student must master in order to be successful. Students with disabilities are known to especially struggle with reading. Aspects of reading include phonemic awareness, alphabetic principle, fluency, (speed, accuracy, intonation), vocabulary, and comprehension. Repeated reading helps students increase fluency, learn vocabulary, and increase comprehension.

What is Repeated Reading?

Repeated Reading is a fluency-building strategy that consists of rereading a short meaningful passage several times (typically 3-4 times) until a certain criterion is met.

Definition of the Strategy

The repetition of rereading a short passage helps students build fluency, which is the accuracy and speed with which someone reads.

Many struggling readers have difficulty decoding words, which impedes their ability to better comprehend text.

Rational for the Strategy

Mastery Learning
Usage of different literature (short stories, newspaper articles, book passages, etc).
Different styles (peer-mediated, teacher-student)
Easy for teachers to implement
Is effective during short interventions (10-15 minutes)

Advantages of Repeated Reading

While repeated reading typically increases oral reading fluency, it doesn’t always increase comprehension.
Some students have difficulty generalizing this strategy to other literature.
Can be frustrating for students who compare their progress to others, or don’t meet their goal during the session.

Disadvantages of Repeated Reading

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of repeated reading on six urban fourth and fifth-grade students with emotional or behavior disorders.

Staubitz, J., Cartledge, G., & Yurick, A. (2005). Repeated reading for students with emotional or behavioral disorders: Peer- and trainer mediated instruction. Behavioral Disorders, 31(1), 51-64.

Article- Purpose of Study

This study took place in urban elementary school in the Midwest that enrolled 148 students: 85% African American, 13% Caucasian, and 2% Hispanic, Native American, or Asian.

Interventions occurred in the EBD resource room, unoccupied classrooms, other rooms based on availability, and occasionally in the in-school suspension room.

Six students with EBD, confirmed to have performed at least 1 year below grade level.

Students received academic instruction in the EBD resource room.

Three fourth grade students, and three fifth grade students.

Four males, and three females.


Repeated Reading (Peer-mediated)

Independent Variables

Oral Reading Rate: Number of words per minute (WPM)
Accuracy: Divided the total number correct words by the total number of words read during 1 minute.
Comprehension: Blanking out five words in the passage, and then students filled in the blanks (“Cloze Procedure”)

Dependent Variables

Multi-baseline, across subject design.
Introduced on a staggered basis so that three pairs of students averaged 37, 17.5, and 11.5 sessions of repeated reading for 10-15 minutes).

General Procedures

Sustained Silent Reading
Students given 10 minutes to read 180-200 word passage silently.
Students were then asked to read aloud for one minute (they were unaware of being timed)
Five comprehension questions
No feedback from experimenter other than “Good”


Standardized Assessment given before baseline and after intervention.
The Woodcock Johnson III was given in the following order:
-letter-word Identification
-reading fluency
-passage comprehension
-word attack

Standardized Assessment

Peer Mediated Repeated Reading

Students matched into pairs according to reading level assessment data

Training period: Three 20 minute sessions

Appropriate reading and listening skills modeled/practiced

Correction Procedure modeled/practiced


Students read with partners from a passage of 180-200 words for 10 minutes.
While one read, the other followed along with their finger.
Miscues were corrected using a scripted correction procedure:

1. “Stop, the word is ____. Point to and say ____.
2. “Good. The group of words is ____ ____ ____. Point to and say the group or words.”
3. “Excellent. Say the group of words three times fast or backward and forward.”

While the students practiced the passage for 10 minutes, the experimenter walked around giving verbal praise, stickers, and corrective feedback.
After the 10 minutes of practice, the students read to the experimenter for 1 minute.
The students knew they were being timed, and had three chances to improve their score.

The students charted their scores for that session using the number of words read per minute.
Fluency Criteria:
-145 WPM for 4th graders
-180 WPM for 5th graders




Three generalization conditions in place:

Covertly timed generalization (GEN): Silent Sustained Reading done every week, except a different 3rd grade level reading was used.

Timed Generalization (TGA): Same as GEN, except the students knew they were being timed.

Timed and Charted Generalization (CGA): Same as TGA except students also charted their WPM on the same graph as their intervention.


The Repeated Reading yielded higher scores for all students than the Silent Sustained Reading.

Two students advanced to the 4th grade level passages
One student advanced to the 5th -grade level
One student advanced to the 6th grade level
Two students advanced to the 7th grade level

Results (Words Per Minute)

Students read with greater accuracy.
The group accuracy mean increased from 86.2% (SSR) to 93.2% (RR)

Results (Accuracy)

After repeated reading, all students answered a greater number of the comprehension questions than during SSR.

The group mean increased from 2.85 (SSR) to 4.90 (RR).

Results (Comprehension)

All students showed gains on all four subtests on the Woodcock Johnson III.
The greatest improvement occurred in the comprehension subtest, with a group mean of 8 months.

Results (Standardized Assessment)

Every student improved their reading speed and accuracy during peer-mediated repeated reading. Comprehension was also improved.

The experimenter concluded that repeated reading is an effective strategy to use for students with EBD, and are struggling in reading.

Begeny, J., Krouse, H., Ross, S., & Mitchell, R. (2009). Increasing elementary-aged students' reading fluency with small-group interventions: A comparison of repeated reading, listening passage preview, and listening only strategies. Journal of Behavioral Education, 18, 211-228.

Cartledge, G., & Lo, Y. (2006). Oral Reading Fluency Through Repeated Reading. In Teaching urban learners: Culturally responsive strategies for developing academic and behavioral competence (pp. 81-102). Champaign, Illinois: Research Press.

Kostewicz, D. (2012). Implementing systematic practice to build reading fluency via repeated reading. The NERA Journal, 47(2), 17-22.
Lo, Y., Cook, N., & Starling, A. (2011). Using a repeated reading program to improve generalization of oral reading fluency. Education and Treatment of Children, 34(1), 115-140.

Lo, Y., Cook, N., & Starling, A. (2011). Using a repeated reading program to improve generalization of oral reading fluency. Education and Treatment of Children, 34(1), 115-140.

Musti-Rao, S., Hawkins, R., & Barkley, E. (2009). Effects of repeated readings on the oral reading fluency of urban fourth- grade students: Implications for practice. Preventing School Failure, 54(1), 12-23.

Staubitz, J., Cartledge, G., & Yurick, A. (2005). Repeated reading for students with emotional or behavioral disorders: Peer- and trainer mediated instruction. Behavioral Disorders, 31(1), 51-64.

Strickland, W., Boon, R., & Spencer, V. (2013). The effects of repeated reading on the fluency and comprehension skills of elementary- age students with learning disabilities (ld), 2001-2011: A review of research and literature. Learning Disabilities: A Contemporary Journal,11(1), 1-33.

Swain, K., Leader-Janssen, E., & Conley, P. (2013). Effects of repeated reading and listening passage preview on oral reading fluency. Reading Improvement, 50(1), 12-18.

Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Edmonds, M., & Reutebuch, C. (2007). A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers. Reading & Writing, 21, 317-347.

Yurick, A., Robinson, P., Cartledge, G., Lo, Y., & Evans, T. (2006). Using Peer-mediated Repeated Readings as a Fluency-Building Activity for Urban Learners. Education and Treatment of Children, 29(3), 469-506.


By: Joanna Schveder
Once the fluency criteria was reached, the student answered 5 comprehension questions.

Students moved to the next grade-level passage after they met the fluency criteria and answered the five comprehension questions correctly.

The experimenter had to switch around partners or be a partner when students surpassed their peer’s reading level.
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