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Unit 1

Interactions and Ecosystems

Dylan Leinweber

on 18 June 2013

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Transcript of Unit 1

Interactions and

Abiotic Vs Biotic
Problems in Ecosystems
Measuring Ecosystems
Cycles in the Environment
Niche (role of an organism)
Needs of All Living Things
Topic 1
Is the study of the relationship between living organisms and their environment

Ecologists study ecology
Habitat - place to live
Gas Exchange - breathing
Food - Energy
Water - Everything on Earth needs water
Reproduce - Continue the species
An inherited characteristic that helps an
organism survive in it's environment.

They can be both behavioral and structural
Producer - organisms that make their own food energy
Consumers - eat other organisms to get food energy
Herbivore - organisms that eat producers
Carnivore - organisms that eat other animals
Omnivores - eat both producers and consumers
Predator - in a relationship with prey to control their population by eating them
Prey - in a relationship with predators to control predators population by having a certain amount of food available to the predators
Food Chain - has the sun because it shows how energy is transferred in an ecosystem

Food web - arrows show the direction of energy transfer within all feeding relationships in an ecosystem

Pyramid of numbers - A pyramid where producers are on the bottom and then feeding relationships are shown where the organisms on the top eat the organisms below them. The pyramid also shows the biomass (number of organisms in an ecosystem) to show the ecosystems health
"Circle of life" - decomposers and scavengers eat dead organisms to get energy and at the same time break down dead materials back into nutrients that plants can use to grow, restarting the cycle of life.

Water Cycle - Water precipitates, becomes ground water, pools, evaporates, condenses into clouds and precipitates again.
Species in an ecosystem change the abiotic conditions, which then changes what species can live in the ecosystem.
Ex. as tree's grow, they block the amount of sunlight on the forest floor, this prevents tree saplings from growing as they do not have enough light, making the forest floor on suitable for those species that can survive in low light levels
Primary succession - change in species from an area that was initially bare
Secondary Succession - change in species in an area that occurs do to a disturbance such as a fire
Climax Ecosystem - Ecosystem no longer undergoing succession
Pollution = a substance added to the environment at such a fast rate that it cannot be broken down or a harmful material that is added to the environment by humans

Acid Rain - rain that has become acidic due to pollutants added to the air

Acid - a substance with a pH below 7
pH - scale that measures the acidity or basicity of a material
Pollutants can be stored in organisms. When they are these pollutants will increase in concentration in higher level consumers causing disease in them.

Ex. Mercury and lead poisoning in aquatic environments limits the amount of fish we should eat because they have too high levels of heavy metals in them.
Introduced species - when a species is placed in a new ecosystem and it thrives because it lacks predators and has an abundance or prey they harm the ecosystems natural species by taking their resources from them causing them to die.

Pest Control - chemicals that kill pests, biological controls (predators to control prey) or radiation of males to prevent reproduction.
When 2 species live together for an
extended period of time

Mutualism - both species benefit from the relationship
Parasitism - the parasite benefits from hurting the host
Commensalism - 1 species benefits and the other is harmed
Sustainability means as we use up resources we replace them

Ecological Footprint is a measure of our sustainability

4 R's can lower your ecological footprint:
-Renewable Resources
Living vs. Non-living
Species in Danger
Extinct means the species no longer exists

Endangered means the species exists in such low numbers it is in danger of going extinct

extirperated means species no longer live in the ecosystems they used to be found in
Full transcript