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European exploration, imperialism and colonisation.
Transcript of European exploration, imperialism and colonisation.
Machine and steam power made it possible to manufacture goods far more quickly and cheaply than ever before.
This led to an increase in consumption which in turn caused the demand for raw materials to increase.
As a result of the inventions of various cloth making machines, Britain now had a thriving textile industry. In fact it was by far the largest in the world.
What raw materials do you think they might have needed to import to supply the trade?? Cotton Some raw materials that were required, such as cotton, sugar, tea and silk (to name but a few) could only be grown in warmer climates. Britain, as well as many other developed European countries, had a solution! A colony is a settlement that has been established by people from a different place. The colony is under the immediate political control of the country where the colonisers came from. The country in control is usually geographically-distant, and is sometimes called the parent country or the mother country. People who migrated to settle permanently in colonies controlled by the mother country were called colonists or settlers. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the worlds foremost global power. By 1922 the British Empire held sway over about 458 million people, one-fifth of the world's population at the time!
The empire covered more than 33,700,000 km sq, that's almost a quarter of the Earth's total land area!
This method of control exerted by the parent country was known as "imperial rule" During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal and Spain pioneered European exploration of the globe, and in the process established large overseas empires.
Envious of the great wealth these empires generated, England, France, and the Netherlands, began to establish colonies and trade networks of their own in the Americas and Asia.
A series of wars in the 17th and 18th centuries with the Netherlands and France left Great Britain the dominant colonial power in India and North America. Imperialism "The practice of extending the power and dominion of a nation to foreign colonies". The British Government took control of all the countries it colonised. They imposed their rules and regulations on all who lived in their colonies in Africa, the Americas and Asia. The indigenous (native) populations became British subjects and effectively, property of whichever Queen or King was ruling at the time. Britain had a very large empire in countries such as Australia and India. They entered these countries for cheap raw materials which were sent back to Britain.
The colonies would then provide a huge market for the manufactured goods.
England in the 17th century adopted the policy of mercantilism, exercising control over the trade of the colonies, thus greatly affecting their political and economical development. This is where the government of the mother country controlled the industry and trade of other, weaker settlements with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than what is imported. Why? Which raw materials came from which colony? Sugar
Slaves! West Indies
South America Explore and then colonise foreign lands that could provide these raw materials. The Slave Trade The increased need for raw materials required huge amounts of labour (human effort). The growth and harvest of crops such as sugar and cotton required very hard work. As agricultural machinery was not yet available, everything had to be done by hand - and in colonies such as the Americas, labour was especially short. Once again, there was a solution. To solve the labour problem, millions of people from Africa were brought to the Americas to provide slave labour. Between the mid-1500's and the late 1800's, more than 11 million African people were forcibly taken tp the new world and sold as slaves.
A slave is someone who is the property of another person. Slaves could be bought and sold, like an animal or a car.
About 10 million people were sold to colonists in South America, Central America and the West Indies; while about half a million were sold in North America. The Portuguese and Spanish empires pioneered the trade in the 1500's. By 1750, one-third of the British Merchant Fleet in what had become a very profitable triangular trade.
Ships took manufactured goods from Britain to Africa and exchanged them for slaves. They delivered the slaves to the Americas, then returned to Britain loaded with cotton or other raw materials.
In the 1780's the British Parliament debated bills to abolish the trade due to humanitarian concerns but the majority of MP's considered that it was too important to the British economy.
The slave trade was eventually abolished by Britain in 1808. It took many other nations many more years to put an end to the suffering. Profiting from the Slave Trade Over the next few weeks, we will be looking at two of Britain's former colonies.
The one your sitting in right now!
And, the "Jewel in the Empires Crown"... ...India ...Australia Hello