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Commerce & Culture
Transcript of Commerce & Culture
Unit 3 Overview:
Regional and Transregional Interactions, 500-1500
Chapter 7: Commerce and Culture, 500-1500
Chapter 8: China and the World
Chapter 9: The Worlds of Islam
Chapter 10: The Worlds of Christendom
Chapter 11: Pastoral People on the Global Stage
Chapter 12: The Worlds of the Fifteenth Century
How were goods transported?
Caravans of camels
What types of goods were traded?
Luxury products (not often "staples")
Silk (esp. when China had monopoly on silk production)
Important for economies, even though relatively small
Buddhism (conversion=voluntary process); monasteries would provide rest stops for traveling merchants; tended to spread in oasis cities, NOT in rural areas (less literate)
Be sure to note while reading HOW Buddhism itself changed as a result of trade and cultural interactions
Questions to Consider
What were the major trade routes for this period?
Who traded (and with whom)?
What was traded along the major trade routes?
What effect does trade have on societies?
What infrastructure needs to be in place for trade to thrive?
Overland trading network throughout Eurasia that linked pastoral and agricultural people
Most prosperous when supported by powerful states
Classical Era: Rome and China
7th and 8th centuries CE: Byzantium, Muslim dynasty, Tang dynasty
13th and 14th centuries: Mongols
What was traded along the silk roads?
Initial contact between civilizations often led to disease
Weakens states and armies, but often strengthens Christianity and Buddhism
Bubonic Plague (534-750 CE) occurs regularly
Constantinople lost 10,000 people/day over 40 day period in 534 CE
Black Death, 1346-1350
Spread from China to Europe
1/3 of Europe died
How is this explained?
Benefits of Black Death?
Exposure to diseases gives Euros an advantage in the 16th century
Sea-based trade routes linked people all across the eastern hemisphere
Indian Ocean (biggest)
Cheaper than carrying goods via Silk Roads (why?)
Understanding of weather patterns greatly aided sea trade
Linked urban centers, not countries/regions
Indian Ocean Trade
Began during First Civilizations (Mesopotamia and IRV)
Hugs the coastline (Except for areas around Indonesia)
Around CE, new knowledge of monsoon patterns allowed sailors to venture further afield
India as "fulcrum" of trading
Changes, 500-1500 CE
China re-emerges as a trading point
Spread of Islam encourages trade (VERY important)
By 1000, international maritime culture established around port cities
How does sea trade impact the development of civilizations?
Geography of SE Asia makes it well-situated to play big role in IO Trade
Srivijaya: Control Straits of Malacca from 670-1025
Speak multiple languages; adopt aspects of Buddhism or Hinduism (though with local adaptations)
Swahili, 8th c. CE (after rise of Islam)-1500
City-states along East African coast; thoroughly urban
Rise in prominence as demand for goods increases
Gold, ivory, quartz, leopard skins
Take items from interior to coasts to be sold
Becomes Islamic as period progresses
Trade route across the Sahara, links North Africa and the Mediterranean with West Africa
Environmental variety of Africa provided incentive for this trade route
North Africa: Cloth, glassware, weapons
Sahara: Copper and Salt (Oases with dates)
South of Sahara: Gold
Trade is difficult because of the absence of large pack animals or oceangoing vessels
Not much evidence for interaction b/t North and South America (Panama makes that difficult)
Loose trading networks throughout North America and Mesoamerica (evidence of some interaction)
Significant interaction and trade b/t the Maya cities and Teotihuacan
Maya also took part in some water-based trade on Atlantic and Pacific oceans
As with Afro-Eurasia, trade appears to have consisted of luxury goods
Introduction of camel transforms trade (early centuries CE)
Could go 10 days without water (!)
Caravans could consist of 5,000 camels
Journey took ~70 days
B/t 1100-1400, some slave trade across the Sahara
Trade creates major urban centers, and helps finance wealthy monarchies throughout Africa