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Middle and Late Childhood

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by

Peter Baggetta

on 1 December 2015

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Transcript of Middle and Late Childhood

Middle and Late
Childhood

Peer Relationships
Peer Status
Outcomes of Peer Status
Cognitive Development
1. Discuss the functions of peer relationships in childhood.

2. Explain what factors contribute to peer acceptance and popularity, or to peer rejection, during childhood.
Popular – well liked by most and rarely disliked
Rejected – rarely liked and often disliked
Neglected – neither liked nor disliked
Controversial – liked by many but also disliked by many
Average – in the middle on both the liked and disliked scales
Socially withdrawn children whose social anxiety keeps them from interacting with peers and exposes them to victimization by peers are at risk for a variety of negative outcomes
1. Describe the characteristics of Piaget's concrete-operational thought.

2. Discuss Vygotsky's sociocultural perspective of cognitive development.
Compare your friendships in middle and late childhood (7-11 years old) to your friendships before 7 and in high school.

Share with your partner.
Peer Networks
Toddlerhood ~10% social interactions
Middle childhood ~ 30% social interactions
Peer groups typically contain children of different levels of competence
Gender segregation – play with same-sex companions – becomes increasingly strong with age
Play
Activities with no obvious or direct purpose:
Locomotor play (games of tag or ball)
Object play (stacking blocks, making crafts)
Social play (mutual imitation or playing board games)
Pretend play (enacting roles)

As develop undergoes two changes:
Becomes more social
Becomes more imaginative

Important in helping children develop abilities and practice for "real world" scenarios
What types of play did you engage in childhood? How do you think those play activities helped you prepare for the real world?

Share with your partner.
Popular
Popularity affected by personal characteristics that a child typically cannot change:

Physical attractiveness
Intelligence
Social competence
Well-regulated emotions
Rejected
May be characterized by the following:

High levels of aggression
Tendency to social isolation
Submissiveness - over sensitivity to teasing, and/or seen as “easy to push around”
Neglected
May be characterized as:

Having reasonably good social skills
Nonaggressive
Tendency to be shy, withdrawn, and unassertive
Controversial
Often show good social skills and leadership qualities, like popular children

But also viewed as aggressive bullies, like many rejected children
What peer status categories and hierarchies were present in your elementary and middle schools?
Rejected children (usually because of aggressive behavior):
likely to maintain their rejected status from grade to grade
may end up even more poorly adjusted as a result of the experience of being rejected
self-esteem suffers
lose opportunities to learn social skills
develop negative attitudes toward others
negatively influenced by other antisocial children end up hanging out with
academic performance suffers
Neglected children often gain greater acceptance later
Friendships
One of the most important aspects of peer relationships:

Help to provide different perspectives of the world from home
Source of emotional and social support
Opportunity to practice communication and interactions
Increases odds that a child will be happy and socially competent
Reduces the odds that a child will be lonely and depressed
Pave the way for romantic relationships in adolescence
True friends become attachment figures
Concrete-Operations Stage
Concrete operations involve mastering the logical operations missing in the preoperational stage

Conservation:
Idea that certain properties of an object do not change when its appearance is altered in a superficial way - Piaget’s conservation-of-liquid-quantity task

Children younger than 6 or 7 typically do not understand that the volume of liquid is conserved despite the change in the shape it takes in different containers
Vygotsky
Knowledge depends on social experiences

Cultural tools - language, writing, numbers, problem-solving strategies, cultural values

Acquire tools through interaction with parents and other more experienced members of society
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD):
The gap between what a learner can accomplish independently and what can accomplish with the guidance and encouragement of a more skilled partner

Guided Participation:
Children’s active participation in culturally relevant activities with the aid and support of parents and other knowledgeable guides

Scaffolding:
Parents and more skilled others provide structured help and gradually reduce the help as the child becomes more competent
How social interaction fosters cognitive children’s growth
Full transcript