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Transcript of Atmosphere
Atmosphere Creation of Earth's Atmosphere Earth's original atmosphere consisted of only hydrogen and helium atoms Earth's Second Atmosphere
Came From Earth Itself In Earth's Third Atmosphere, CO2 is dissolved into the Ocean Ammonia was broken apart by sunlight leaving N and H atoms Layers Of The Earths Atmosphere 4-12 miles high Average temp. 62 F to -50 F Density decreases with height Transition from troposphere
- Troposphere Troposphere Stratosphere 19 percent of atmosphere's gas but very little water vapor Anvil Clouds 31 miles above Earth's surface 24 Mile High Jump Mesosphere 56 miles high Temp decreases with height From 5 F to -184 F Even though air is very thin it's still thick enough to slow down meteors Thermosphere 375 miles high Temp can reach 3600 F 6200 miles away from earths surface Atoms and molecules escape into space Weather Precipitation Water vapor rises and condenses to form clouds Needs a "seed" in order to condense If air in cloud is below freezing, ice crystals form Hail Repetition of what happens when snow forms Lightning Static Charge Means not moving- charge is always looking for a way to discharge Water droplets at bottom are lifted to colder heights - freezing them Downdrafts push ice/hail down where it meats water coming up - and so electrons are stripped off - creating SC Resulting in negatively charged bottom and positively charged top Atmosphere between acts as insulator-when strength of charges overpower insulating atmosphere - Lightning happens Strong negative charges from cloud attracts positive charge on ground Positive charges move up tallest objects trees, buildings As negative charges get closer a "Streamer" reaches up to meet the negative charges - creating lightning Thunder In a fraction of a second lightning heats the air around it to 54,000 F Surface of the sun is 10,000 F Heated air expands rapidly - creating shortwaves Air is compressed and then contracts resulting in initial crack sound followed by vibrations in the air Aurora Borealis Result of collisions between gaseous particles in the earth's atmosphere Color depends on type of gaseous partials
Yellow green most common - produced by oxygen Nitrogen - rare redish blue Frequent explosive collisions between gases and with the help of the suns rotation - Free electrons and protons into space Particles escape holes in the magnetic field and are blown towards earth by solar wind Earth's magnetic fields are weaker at the poles therefore some particles enter the atm. and collide with other gases - emitting light Tornadoes Inside thunder cloud warm and humid air rises while cool air is falling along with rain or hail Results in a horizontal spinning air currents - goes vertical and then drops down out of the cloud Hurricanes Ocean water should 80 F and at least 50 meters deep Water evaporates with help of strong winds creating water vapor Forms near the equator As clouds encounter more clouds - forms a cluster of thunderstorm clouds called a tropical disturbance Condensation releases heat into the air Tropical depression 25-35 mph Tropical storm 39 mph- forms an eye Tropical Cyclone/Hurricane 74 mph 50,000 ft high 125 miles across, eye 5 - 30 miles wide Why is the sky blue? Light travels in a straight line until something gets in its way to reflect, bend, or scatter it Sunlight is made up of all the colors of the spectrum - white light Blue and violet waves are just the right size to get absorbed by molecules of gas in the atmosphere and then scattered out in all directions Sun is lower in the sky - allows more light to pass to you ( reds and yellows along with blue and violets ) to pass straight through to our eyes without any competition Greenhouse gases C02, CH3, N20, HFC, PFC, and SF6 Work Cited http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview-interactive/ http://scijinks.jpl.nasa.gov// http://dsc.discovery.com/ http://www.youtube.com/ Why doesn't the Earth's atmosphere drift into space? Earth's gravity is strong enough to to hold onto its ---------- . Mars for example is less than half the earth's size and is ------- the earth's mass, atmosphere is ---------- as dense as earth's. Because of gravity, the air at the bottom of the atmosphere is under a lot of ---------. Earth's surface atmosphere is squished by the air above it making it --------er than the layers above it. The Higher you go in the atmosphere the -------er the air becomes. ----------% of the air is in the lowest 19 miles of atmosphere. --.7 pounds of pressure down on every square inch of our bodies. Gravity