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Task Based Syllabus
Transcript of Task Based Syllabus
The task base syllabus is means end focused
It focuses on content and method
Communicative and meta-communicative tasks What is a task? Long defines tasks as:
a piece of work undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for some reward. Thus examples of tasks include painting a fence, dressing a child, filling out a form . a pedagogical task.
Richards, Platt and Weber define tasks
an activity or action which is carried out as the result of processing or understanding language (i.e. as a response). For example, drawing a map while listening to a tape, listening to an instruction and performing a command may be referred to as tasks. Ellis defines task as
A task is a work plan that requires learners to process language pragmatically in order to achieve an outcome that can be evaluated in terms of whether the correct or appropriate propositional content has been conveyed. To this end, it requires them to give primary attention to meaning and to make use of their own linguistic resources. Nunan definition
A task is a piece of classroom work that involves learners in comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target language while their attention is focused on mobilizing their grammatical knowledge in order to express meaning, and in which the intention is to convey meaning rather than to manipulate form. Much modern research in second-language acquisition has taken a cognitive approach. Cognitive research is concerned with the mental processes involved in language acquisition, and how they can explain the nature of learners' language knowledge. Language learning is believed to depend on involving students in tasks that require negotiation and meaningful communication What knowledge does the TBS focus on? Communicative knowledge which focuses on sharing of meaning through spoken or written communication. Awareness of language learning which focuses on the exploration of the learning of knowledge how is it processed and learned What capabilities does the task based syllabus focus upon? The ability to be accurate ,appropriate and share meanings. Also to be able to interpret ,express and negotiate. Roots Four arguments have been recently proposed supporting TBS. The inherent value of problem solving tasks in generating learners interaction. The need for pedagogy to focus upon the process of learner participation in discourse. The possibility that a syllabus can be sequenced on the basis of emergent learners problems. The design of the language teaching materials has conventionally given a priority to the selection of content particular target language input . Emerged from the work of Prabue southern India Bangalore project.Students focus on cognitive abilities as problem solving and scientific process thinking but through the target language .His work was according to the procedural syllabus where tasks aren't preplanned but negotiated within the syllabus and different outcomes are individualized. Then ESP emerged with the needs of presenting functional use of the language for the sake to build practical communicative skills as diverse academic disciplines,vocational or technological use not only the learners functional repertoire.
Language is primarily a means of making meaning. Theory of language Lexical units are central in language use and language learning Multiple models of language inform TBI: structural, functional and interactional models of language. It focuses on producing the language in real time speech without pausing or hesitations. Conversation in communicative resources is the basis for SLA in TBI. 1-Tasks provide both the input and output processing necessary for language acquisition. Krashen has long insisted that comprehensible input is the one necessary and sufficient criterion for successful language acquisition . Immersion classes in Canada Swain noted that the opportunities for language production are crucial. Theory of learning Task activity and achievement are motivational
Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned for particular pedagogical purposes The syllabus Task-based syllabus
It specifies the task that should be carried by learners within a program:
Real-world tasks Conventional syllabus
It specifies the content of a course:
Topics and themes
Macro-skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking)
Vocabulary targets Task based is concerned with the learning process
TBLT specifies the tasks that are determined by needs analysis. Selection of tasks Nunan specifies two types of tasks
Pedagogical tasks are specially designed classroom tasks that are intended to require the use of specific intreractional strategies and may also require the use of specific types of language (skills, grammar, vocabulary).(information gap tasks) Real-world tasks are tasks that reflect real-world uses of language and which might be considered a rehearsal for real world tasks. A role-play in which students practice a job interview would be a task of this kind. Examples of Real World tasks:
1. Decorating the classroom with slogans in English
2. Writing simple captions for pictures for classroom decoration
3. Writing a notice to parents
4. Mock healthcare check & mock census
5. Mock food price survey; mock court trial
6. Write a report about a sport match
7. Make a shopping list for a class party
8. Prepare a wall newspaper for the class Examples of Language Learning Tasks:
1. Act out a sketch in the textbook
2. Listen to a talk and write out what you agree and don’t agree
3. Look at the pictures in the textbook and write captions
4. Teacher puts four hats on the table and have students say how they are different (style, color, size, for young or old, etc.)
5. Students look at pictures of two persons and say how they are similar or different Types of interaction
Information gap tasks
Problem solving tasks
Depends on two things
Nature of the task (cyclic)
Emerging learner difficulties(on-going) Sequencing Regarding the nature of the Tasks tasks can be sequenced in terms of knowledge and abilities from more familiar to less familiar. Familiarity regarding the nature of the task could be determined by familiar textual, interpersonal and ideational (cognitive ) and familiar use of abilities. Also sequenced according to emerging learners problems or difficulties.Thus the designer may include specific prescribed tasks and arrange of un-sequenced tasks as remedial or supportive to the individual learner.Thus, this syllabus is a combination between means and ends syllabuses. This sequencing will be carried in three steps
-Identifying the learning problems and difficulties
-Prioritizing particular problem
-identification of appropriate learning tasks.
Skehan (1996a:30), warns of excessive focus on meaning during task completion, confining learners to the strategic solutions they develop, without sufficient focus on structural change or accuracy. Problems of task-based syllabi Sheen (1994) also warns of the inadvisability of associating the TBS with the Comprehensible Input hypothesis (Krashen 1981; 1982 1. Does task-work result in actual acquisition/learning and, if so, does it have an equal effect on receptive and productive skills?;
2. What is the role and nature of instruction in TBSs? (Sheen 1994:146).
Breen, M. Contemporary Paradigms in Syllabus Design State of the Art (pp. 161-166).
Task Based Language Teaching. (2001) The Natural Approach.