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Color: Theory, Psychology and Brief History

An examination of color theory (including schemes and terms), color psychology and a brief history on color.
by

Lisa Rader

on 19 September 2016

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Transcript of Color: Theory, Psychology and Brief History

C
R
The Color Wheel
The Color Wheel is a visual organizer that shows color relationships.
Primary Colors
Red
Blue
Yellow
All other colors on the color wheel can be created by mixing these three colors.
Secondary Colors
Secondary colors are created by
mixing two primary colors together.
Warm Colors
Cool Colors
Cool colors include blue, violet and green...
as well as blue-green, blue-violet.
Tertiary Colors
created by mixing a primary
color with a secondary color.
Tertiary colors include:
yellow-green, blue-green,
yellow-orange, red-orange,
blue-violet and red-violet.
Piet Mondrian's
Broadway Boogie Woogie
Achromatic Scale
(a.k.a. 'Gray scale' or 'value scale')
Colors on the blue side of the spectrum are known as cool colors and are often described as calm, but can also call to mind feelings of sadness or indifference.
Colors in the red area of the color spectrum are known as warm colors and include red, orange and yellow. These warm colors evoke emotions ranging from feelings of warmth and comfort to feelings of anger and hostility.
Hue [h-yoo]: noun; color: all the hues of the rainbow.
chro·ma   [kroh-muh]: noun
1. the purity of a color, or its freedom from white or gray.
2. intensity of distinctive hue; saturation of a color.
Get schooled by
Ok Go
O
Josef Albers
Color Field Painters
O
L
C lor The ry
Color
Color Science
Ad
Reinhardt
http://www.theartstory.org/movement-hard-edge-painting.htm
Henri
Matisse
O
Fauvism
Andre
Derain
Georges
Rouault

noun /ˈfōˌvizəm/ 

A style of painting with vivid expressionistic and nonnaturalistic use of color that flourished in Paris from 1905 and, although short-lived, had an important influence on subsequent artists, esp. the German expressionists. Matisse was regarded as the movement's leading figure.
( French meaning " wild beast" and pronounced "FOHV-ism")
Color Field painting is a style of abstract painting of extreme simplicity that emerged in New York City and flourished in the 1960s. Color was used as the primary element in both creating composition and evoking mood. Such paintings usually featured colors soaked into the canvas, emphasizing their relationship to the surface of the image rather than in depth.
Mark
Rothko
Helen
Frankenthaler
sir
Isaac
Newton
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pantone
"The Pantone Color Matching System is largely a standardized color reproduction system. By standardizing the colors, different manufacturers in different locations can all refer to the Pantone system to make sure colors match without direct contact with one another. The company's primary products include the Pantone Guides, which consist of a large number of small (approximately 6×2 inches or 15×5 cm) thin cardboard sheets, printed on one side with a series of related color swatches and then bound into a small "fan deck". The idea behind the PMS is to allow designers to "color match" specific colors when a design enters production stage, regardless of the equipment used to produce the color. This system has been widely adopted by graphic designers and reproduction and printing houses for a number of years now."
PANTONE
color
review
Color

Create your own subtractive color model in Photoshop

CMYK x, part II:
Do the same with a photograph
[link tutorial here]

(Red • Green • Blue)
G
R
B
RGB
additive colors
B
R
G
C
Y
M
M
Y
C
subtractive color
CMYK

(cyan • magenta • yellow • black)
CMYK exercise
PANTONE exercise

A)
Take a photograph in nature that has at least 4 distinct colors in the palette,
B)
Import into Photoshop,
C)
Using the eyedropper tool sample the 4 main colors and record the CMYK recipe,
D)
Using the Pantone formula guide, find the corresponding Pantone color (record color number),
E)
Create a color identification sheet like the one pictured here:
(and some more technical info. about color!)
and
exercises

Red, green, and blue colors (collectively called RGB) that televisions and computer monitors mix in various intensities to create all other colors. These are the actual (and not reflected) colors seen by the eye.
Definition

In four-color printing process, the CMYK colors (Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and blacK) which are overlapped in various combinations and proportions to produce all other colors. The visible color is the reflected (and not the retained) color, and is called 'subtractive' because its wavelength is less than sum of the wavelengths of its constituting colors.
Definition
Combining of colored pigments in the form of paints, inks, pastels, and so on. Called subtractive because reflected light is reduced as pigment colors are combined.
Newton explicitly stated that color is a perceptual property, not a physical attribute, which meant that the light mixtures occurred in the eye, not in the light.
http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/color5.html
Color Schemes
complementary
analogous
triad harmony
monochromatic
Complementary: adjective
1. supplying mutual needs or offsetting mutual lacks.; completing
2. forming a satisfactory or balanced whole
3.complementary color: A color directly opposite another on a color wheel and providing the greatest chromatic contrast to it.

Not to be confused with
Complimentary
1. conveying, containing, or resembling a compliment
2. expressing praise; flattering
3. given free, esp as a courtesy or for publicity purposes
Photo by Mags_tag
Does the printer in our classroom operate on additive or subtractive color?
?
answer: subtractive
Vincent Van Gogh
Split
Complementary
Johannes Vermeer
'Girl with A Pearl Earring'
'Self-Portrait with Bandaged Ear and Pipe'
Frida Kahlo
'The Two Fridas'
'Jack in the Pulpit No. 6'
Georgia O'Keefe
http://screencast.com/t/prjqeZQsUNZJ
RGB exercise
Special Thanks to
Cody Mannigan
Analogous colors are adjacent (or next to eachother) on the color wheel; they are neighbors (remember 'us' in analogous).
An analogous interior design color scheme.
'Mono' means 'one' and 'Chroma' means color. Therefore, a monochromatic color scheme uses shades (add black) and tints (add white) of a single color.
HOW TO USE IT:
In general, you want to have contrast in your scheme: at least one light, one medium and one dark value of the color.
artist:
Jeongmee Yoon
' The Old Guitarist' by
Pablo Picasso (painted during his 'Blue Period.'
HOW TO USE IT:
Using exact (or 'straight') complementary colors can jar the viewer's eye. This can be good, if it supports the content (story, meaning) of your work. If this is not what you are going for, it is better to 'knock back' one of the colors by creating a shade or tint (like the Vermeer painting, which uses a dulled yellow instead of a vibrant yellow). Or...opt maybe a split complementary scheme would be better....
Triad harmony
in music!
RGB Wallpaper?!
(and resources)
http://www.moma.org/interactives/exhibitions/2008/colorchart/flashsite/
Reinventing Color Exhibition
DEFINING color
The third and final property of color is its value, meaning its lightness or darkness. The terms shade and tint are in reference to value changes in colors.
There are three (3) properties to color.
First is HUE, which simply means the name we give to a color (red, yellow, blue, etc.).
1}
2}
3}
(within Abstract Expressionism mvmt.)
http://www.theartstory.org/movement-color-field-painting.htm
http://www.theartstory.org/movement-fauvism.htm
(recognized as the leader of the Fauvists)
Hard-Edge Painting
Hard-edge painting is known for its economy of form, fullness of color, impersonal execution, and smooth surface planes.
Frank
Stella
'Harran II'
Ellsworth
Kelly
'Red, Blue, Green'
Color Field
Painters
German
Expressionism
Ernst
Kirchner
Franz
Marc
Triad
A triadic color scheme uses colors that are evenly spaced around the color wheel.

Triadic color harmonies tend to be quite vibrant, even if you use pale or unsaturated versions of your hues.

HOW TO USE IT:
To use a triadic harmony successfully, the colors should be carefully balanced - let one color dominate and use the two others for accent.
3
http://www.tigercolor.com/color-lab/color-theory/color-harmonies.htm
Our modern understanding of light and color begins with Isaac Newton (1642-1726) and a series of experiments that he publishes in 1672. He is the first to understand the rainbow — he refracts white light with a prism....Artists were fascinated by Newton’s clear demonstration that light alone was responsible for color. His most useful idea for artists was his conceptual arrangement of colors around the circumference of a circle
http://www.webexhibits.org/colorart/bh.html
COLOR CONTRAST exercise
(Albers exercise)
A)
Cut two 2" squares out of a single colored piece of paper; be precise
B)
hold your piece of paper up against other colored papers
C)
Choose two different pieces of paper for a background, cut each to be 4" squares
D)
glue one two inch square to each background color
E)
Write down your observations of how the small square of color is perceived relative to its background color
The object of this exercise is to have one color look like two different colors by placing it on two different backgrounds.
The object of this exercise is to learn how to identify pantone colors and create a portfolio page.
art history
in
Josef
Albers
http://vimeo.com/12775814
psychology
1{
}2
3{
}4
http://www.xrite.com/custom_page.aspx?pageid=77&lang=en
HUE challenge!

How will you score??
?
?
?
HOW TO USE IT:
Warm colors 'pop' out toward the viewer (advance), while cool colors tend to recede (or go back in space)
warm/cool
(like prime numbers, primary colors are not divisible).
adjective
1: third in order or level
1905-1933
http://www.theartstory.org/movement-expressionism.htm
The second property is INTENSITY (or 'saturation'), which refers to the strength and vividness of the color. For example, we may describe the color blue as "royal" (bright, rich, vibrant) or "dull" (grayed). Ask yourself: is this hue MUTED or PURE?
See the power of RGB design at work in this IKEA ad:
Where do colors come from?

The science and derivations of pigment.
http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/7.html
High & Low contrast
High degree of difference in color value or low degree of difference in color value.
John Baldessari
Translucent
Opaque
allows light to pass through color
light unable to pass through the color: "solid"
chro·ma   [kroh-muh]: noun
1. the purity of a color, or its freedom from white or gray.
2. intensity of distinctive hue; saturation of a color.
Mixing
complementary colors
sir
Isaac
Newton
Full transcript