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The Great Gatsby - Direct and Indirect characterization

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Jessica Bolton

on 30 September 2013

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Transcript of The Great Gatsby - Direct and Indirect characterization

Direct and Indirect characterization
Kohlberg's Morality Chart
Level I: Preconventional Morality - Stage 1
Level I: Preconventional Morality - Stage 2
Level II: Conventional Morality - Stage 3
Level III: Postconventional Morality - Stage 5
Level III: Postconventional Morality
Level II: Conventional Morality - Stage 4
Punishment-avoidance and obedience
Exchange of favors
Good boy/girl
Law and order
Social contract
Universal ethical principle
Nick Carraway
Morality: Progresses to stage 6
Jay Gatsby
Myrtle Wilson
Daisy Buchanan
George Wilson
Tom Buchanan
Meyer Wolfsheim
Jordan Baker
Morality: Stage 2
Morality: Stage 4
Morality: Stage 1
- Decisions based on what is best for themselves, without regard for others' needs or feelings
- Obey rules only if established by more powerful individuals
- May disobey if they aren't likely to get caught
- Recognize that others also have needs
- May try to satisfy others' needs if their own needs are also met ("you scratch my back, I'll scratch yours")
- Define right and wrong in terms of consequences to themselves

- Make decisions based on what actions will please others (authority figures and people with high status)
- Maintain relationships through sharing, trust, and loyalty
- Take other people's perspectives and intentions into account when making decisions
- Look to society as a whole for guidelines about right or wrong
- Know rules are necessary for keeping society running smoothly and believe it is their "duty" to obey them
- Don't necessarily recognize that as society's needs change, rules should change as well.
- Recognize that rules represent agreements among many individuals about appropriate behavior
- Rules are seen as potentially useful mechanisms that can maintain the general social order, rather than something that must be obeyed simply because they are "the law"
- Recognize the flexibility of rules
- Hypothetical, "ideal" stage that few people ever reach
- Adhere to a few abstract, universal principles (e.g., equality of all people, respect for human dignity, commitment to justice)
- Answer to a strong inner conscience and willingly disobey laws that violate their own ethical principles
- Lives in New York
- Involved in unspecified illegal affairs and organized crime
- Business associate and a friend of Gatsby's
- Very intelligent, clever and powerful man
- Fixed the 1919 World Series

"Meyer Wolfsheim? No, he's a gambler." Gatsby hesitated, then added coolly: "He's the man who fixed the World's Series back in 1919." (71)
Arnold Rothstein
- Does what is best for himself
“When a man gets killed I never like to get mixed up in it in any way. I keep out.” (163)
- Obey rules only if established by more powerful individuals
Mentality for someone involved in organized crime
Boss of many other people, likes the control, and won’t take orders from just anybody
- May disobey rules if they’re not likely to get caught
Rigged the 1919 World Series
"They can't get him, old sport. He's a smart man." (71)

- The “golden girl”
- Everyone sees charm, wealth, sophistication and grace
- materialistic, shallow, fickle and cynical
- “I think everything is terrible anyhow” (22) doesn’t think anything is worthwhile or good

- Equality of all people, respect for human dignity
He does not like the corrupt social dynamic of New York
"He (Gatsby) wanted to go and he didn't see that Mr Sloane had determined he shouldn't" (99)
- They answer to a strong inner conscience
Took responsibility for Gatsby's funeral
- Western values of democracy, capitalism, individual freedom, hard work and perseverance

- Level-headed and caring
- More practical and down-to-earth than the others (modest life style)

"I believe that on the first night I went to Gatsby's house I was one of the few guests who had actually been invited" (43)
- An outsider, edges of social circles
"And after boasting this way of my tolerance, I come to the admission that it has a limit" (7)
- Tolerant to a certain extent
- Trying to rise above her current station in life
- Acts above her station in an obvious, obnoxious way
"The intense vitality that had been so remarkable in the garage was converted in to impressive hauteur" (33)
- Portrayed as the fool
- Greedy
"These people! You have to keep after them all the time" (34).
- “You scratch my back and I’ll scratch yours”
Dynamic of her affair with Tom
- Define right and wrong based on the consequences to themselves
Affair has negative effect on both spouses lives, but not hers so she doesn't end it
"She smiled slowly and, walking through her husband as if he were a ghost, shook hands with Tom, looking him flush in the eye" (28)
- Self-centred
- Few characters without obvious or impacting flaws
- Hard working lower class member of society
- Loves his wife
"I saw Wilson standing on the raised threshold of his office, swaying back and forth..." (132)
- Only character that speaks about God
- Look to society as a whole for guidelines about right or wrong
- Submissive
Submissive towards Tom because he is of a higher status
"'And if you feel that way about it, maybe I'd better sell it somewhere else after all' 'I don't mean that,' explained Wilson quickly 'i just meant-' (28)
- Doesn't necessarily recognize that as society's needs change, rules should change as well.
Old soul, works for his $
- Inspiration for Wolfsheim
- Leader of Jewish mob in New York
- Lived a life of wealth and power
- Rigged the 1919 world series
- "The Brain"
- Turned prohibition into a business
George Clooney
- Born in Kentucky
similar Midwestern values

- Belief in equality for all people
Involved in 31 charities and 22 causes

(Feeding America, Make Poverty History ect.)
- Not married and has no children
Unconnected, even at their older ages
Meg Ryan
- Parents teachers, modest family
- Good girl in the beginning, faithful to her man
- Cheated on her husband
- Criticized for leaving husband (Dennis Quaid)
- Affair led to her social demise
- Myrtles association with Tom was a factor in her death, her demise
Lee Thompson Young
- Suicide of gun shot
- Dead at late 20's early 30's
- No suicide note
- Suffered from depression
Child Development and Education, by T.M McDevitt, J.E. Ormrod, 2007 edition
Stage 3
- Made decisions to please others and to please high status people when she married Tom
- Follows social rules and when Gatsby asks her to “break the rules” she can’t do it
- Gatsby “she was the first nice girl he had ever known” (141)

- Both born into high class
- Both were well liked
- Both were cheated on by their husband
- Both cheated on their husband

Princess Diana
- Arrogant and violent
- Hypocritical because he can cheat on Daisy but when he suspects Daisy is having an affair he was furious
- Racist and closed minded
- Controlling

- Cynical
- Lying and deceitful when she cheated in a golf tournament
- Modern
- Hypocritical “I hate careless people” (39)
- But more an untitled attitude toward life “they will keep out of my way” (39)

Stage 2
- Careless towards others “takes two to make an accident”
- Satisfies needs of self when cheats in tournament - it satisfies her need to win
- Doesn’t care about other people when she is unaffected by the summers events
- Occasionally helps other people- when helped Daisy on her wedding day

Stage 2 and 4
- Re-invented Gatsby is stage 2-illegal business and is dishonest
- The real Gatsby stage 4-he didn’t care about social status, wasn't cynical or corrupt by high status
- Cared about other people-when he sent the dress to Lucille

- Determined- reclaim Daisy
- Ambitious- to have a better life
- Idealistic- unrealistic and a visionary
- Mysterious at the beginning
- Slightly dishonest- lied about his past and withheld information for a time
- Re-invented himself at seventeen-stayed naive, blindly in love and idealistic

- He is egotistic and arrogant
- Does what he wants - when he has an affair with myrtle
- Doesn’t consider others feelings when he expresses his feelings on race

Stage 2
- He cheated on his wife like Tom did
- Wife complained about his ego and Tom is arrogant and a bit egotistical

Arnold Schwarzenegger
Marie Antoinette
- Both easily bored
- Both were modern woman for their time
- Both had an untitled attitude toward life

- Both blindly in love
- Both died because they were blindly in love
- Both were idealistic

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