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Transcript of Amoxicillin
If you are a child in sub-saharan africa, you are 16.5 times more likely to die under the age of 5 than a child in other places.
30% of all child deaths could have been prevented by amoxicillin
54% of all child deaths could have been prevented by common drugs. The first step is the adding of 1 N-acetyl glucosimine to 1 N-acetyl muramic acid. . It is used to fight many diseases including strep throat, ear infection and sinus infection. Amoxicillin (C16H19N3O5S•3H2O) clogs the proteins that joins the 2 sets of 5 amino acids together holding the 2 cell wall layers on each side. I know its difficult to understand, lets go see it in action! </:-) What is Amoxicillin
Known as Bacterial cell wall synthesis d This is what amoxicillin does to bacteria. This is an amoxicillin. ` p Zooming in, I will show you:
1)How bacterial cell wall synthesis works 2)What amoxicillin does to destroy the bacteria and
3) What the bacteria does to fight the drug The Big Picture. Amoxicillin is a common drug used to fight many sicknesses If a bacteria has beta-lactamase, it is resistant to Amoxicillin Amoxicillin uh-mok-suh-sil-in What is this? Why Should I care? Amoxicillin is a type of pennicillin. Pennicillins are a type of Beta-Lactam drug. Beta-Lactam drugs have a beta-lactam ring. Most bacteria have something called periplasm. Periplasm is the area around the cell wall that the cell wall is in. Bacterial cell walls consist of 2 polymers, N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyl muramic acid. Bacterial cell wall synthesis happens in many stages. What is amoxicillin What if you did not have amoxicillin?
very uncomfortable when sick.
sick for much longer
you may die Bacterial cell wall synthesis In the third step, the precursor of peptidoglycan is taken to a cell wall accepter in the periplasm. Now that you have seen what bacterial wall synthesis is supposed to look like, I will show you what amoxicillin does to mess it up Beta lactam rings bind to pennicillin binding proteins (transpeptidase and D-alamal carboxy peptidase) stopping bacterial cell wall synthesis. Beta lactam ring A bacterial cell wall is very similar to humans skin where the new skin cells replace the old skin cells. If bacterial cell wall synthesis stops, the"old skin cells"are still present. This gives the bacteria time to become resistant to amoxicillin. To destroy the bacteria faster, amoxicillin has a chemical called autolicense that dissolves the "old skin cells". The bacteria is left with very little cell wall causing the cell to burst. Normally binding proteins P.B.Ps being blocked by amoxicillin autolicense peptidoglycan bits Part II
Amoxicillin Part III
The Resistance Part I
How bacterial cell wall synthesis works N-acetyl glucosamine N-acetyl muramic acid amino acid Joined together peptidoglycan (strips of cell wall) The fourth step is called transpeptidation. Transpeptidation involves 2 proteins. Transpeptidase and D-alamal carboxypeptidase. these 2 protein join the layers of peptidoglycan by securing the chains of amino acids together to form 2 chains of 4 joined amino acids. Transpeptidase D-alamal carboxypeptidase D-alamal carboxypeptidase comes about a millisecond after the transpeptidase and secures the amino acids permanently There are 2 major ways that bacteria resist amoxicillin. They are beta-lactamase enzymes and altered transpeptidase. Bibliography http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qBdYnRhdWcQms
Mechanisms in Medicine inc.
World Health Organization website
American Academy of Pediatrics http://www.healthychildren.org/- Beta-lactamase enzymes destroy the beta-lactam ring before it binds to transpeptidase. Beta-lactamase are transferred by conjugation. Conjugation happens when 2 bacteria are in close contact with each other and they form a channel and a resistant bacteria passes either D.N.A. or a plasmid. Plasmids are self replicating genetic material that can be transferred from one bacteria to another. If the bacteria that received the plasmid can read then translate the plasmid, then it will make beta-lactamase enzymes. beta lactam ring Beta-Lactamase Some bacteria will constantly be spitting the beta-lactamase out into the surrounding environment. While others will only make beta-lactamase when it senses amoxicillin in the periplasm and only put the beta-lactamase into the periplasm. Non-resistant bacteria can become resistant bacteria Another way that bacteria can become resistant to amoxicillin is by having altered pennicillin binding proteins that do not allow the amoxicillin to attach. How does it work? does it taste like chicken? The bacteria begins to make altered pennicilin binding proteins by getting DNA from another bacteria through a process called transformation. Transformation happens when a resistant bacteria dies and its D.N.A. is released into the surrounding environment then a similar bacteria can uptake the naked D.N.A. then it can remodel a section of the D.N.A. causing altered pennicillin binding proteins that do not bind to the beta-lactam ring of B-lactam antibiotics. Before Standard PBP After Altered PBP naked D.N.A. Resistance gene live bacteria Live Bacteria Resistance Gene naked DNA Resistant Bacteria We have seen how cell wall synthesis happens, how amoxicillin works and how the bac fights bac so... The war isn't over but you can help by taking your medication to the end and keeping bad bacteria where they belong. My POD was the magnet model showing the different concepts with a red backround.