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Copy of CDI

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Jesssica Be

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Copy of CDI

Children's Depression Inventory
The CDI is brief & easy
to administer & score
under 30 minutes
uses rating scales
reading level grade 1-3
CDI is a symptom-oriented instrument for asessing depression in children
between the ages of 7 and 17.

There are two age categories for CDI:
7-12 year olds
13-17 year olds
was first published
by Maria Kovacs in
It was developed
because depression in
young children is often difficult to diagnose.
0-indicating an absence of symptoms
1-indicating mild symptoms
2-for definite symptoms
Each item has 3 statements,
and the child is asked to
select the one answer that best
describes their feelings over
the past 2 weeks.
The CDI is commonly used in schools, clinics, guidance centres, and medical pediatric settings by psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and mental health professionals.

Parent, teacher, and self-report ratings
provide a comprehensive evaluation.

When more than 1imformant (parent, teacher, youth) participates in assessment: ability to evaluate the pervasiveness of the problem.

The CDI has excellent psychometric properties, which means that it measures depression in children accurately and reliably when used properly.

The CDI is a quick and painless depression assessment for your child.
The CDI options are:
original long version (CDI)
a short version (CDI:S)
a parent version (CDI:P)
a teacher version (CDI:T)
for a multiple-informant assessment.
All of these components are available as handscored QuikScore™ Forms or in
software format.
CDI Versions.....
There are five factors or subscales within
the CDI assessment that measure different
components of depression:
Assessors should use the CDI:S
when a quick screening is required
or when time is limited a child.

The longer CDI should be used when
more time can be spent with the child
and a more complete picture is needed.
It is recommended to
obtain info from both parents
or primary caregivers using the
CDI:P when possible.

When possible several teachers
familiar with the child should
cpmplete the CDI:T.
CDI can be
administered in
paper-and-pencil format
using QuikScore Forms.
When CDI forms are mailed to teachers
or sent home with parents-the assessor should
emphasize that forms are to be completed without
input from others!!!!
The adminstrator should be:
a trained mental health professional
obtain informed consent
establish a rapport
give clear instructions
avoid bias
debrief respondents
The CDI evaluates the presence and severity
of specific depressive symptoms in youth
so a targeted treatment plan can
be developed.
The CDI:S contains ten key items from the long
version of the CDI. It is ideal for measuring
changes in symptom severity and monitoring the
progress of treatment. It is also often used as a
screening instrument.
The CDI:P asks parents to rate their child’s
behavior at home in family situations. It provides
scores for two subscales:
Emotional Problems and Functional Problems
The CDI:T asks teachers to rate the child’s behavior
in academic and social situations at school. It
provides scores for two subscales:
Emotional Problems and Functional Problems
The original long version of the CDI provides
scores for all of the symptom scales measured
by the CDI. It is recommended for initial

(inability or decreased ability to experience joy)

Negative self-esteem
(belief that you are not good at anything)

(lack of motivation or inability to complete tasks)

Interpersonal problems
(difficulty making and keeping close relationships)

Negative mood
(irritability or anger)
Emotional Problems: Mostly parallels the
Negative mood & Anhedonia subscale. Reflects
symptoms such as:
looking sad
crying or looking tearful
appearing lonely
looking tired or fatigued
Functional Problems: mostly parallels the
Interpersonal problems & Ineffectiveness
subscale. Reflects symptoms such as:
child not enjoying being with people
being uncooperative
having to push him/her to do school work
not enjoying school
decrease in school performance
Both the CDI parent & teacher yield scores
for only two subscales in addition to the
total score.
Emotional Problems
Functional problems
The item "is cranky or irritable"
is loaded strongly on the Emotional
problems subscale for parent
evaluations & on the Functional
subscale for teacher evalutions.
observe child in various situations
and observe irritability or cranky as an
emotional problem

observe child interacting with other children
& working on tasks, percieve the same symptom
as Functional in nature.
Normative Data
Normative analyses were conducted using:
responses of 1,266 Florida public schools
grades 2-8
from 1979-1984
Sample consisted of:
592 boys-ages 7-15
674 girls- ages 7-16
Based on total demographics
for school districts sampled:
77% were Caucasian
23% were African American, Native American
or Hispanic
population was largely middle class
20% were from single-parent families
No full assessment can rely
exclusively on rating scale info.
It is essential to include other
Such as:
test ratings
direct observation
rating scales are subject
to biases & the subjectivity of
the resondent
A proper evaluation can only be achieved
by looking at as many different sources of
info as possible
The CDI paper-and-pencil
version can be handscored
or entered into the CDI
software for scoring.
To find the total score
add all the scores for
each item.
Factor scales are available for the
CDI but not the CDI:S
raw scores are converted to
T-scores on the profile forms.
Permits assessor to directly
compare the scores on one scale
to the scores on another scale.
Interpretive Guidelines for CDI T-scores:
T-score Interpretation of Overall Symptoms
above 70 Very much above average
66 to 70 Much above average
61 to 65 Above average
56 to 60 Slightly above average
45 to 55 Average
40 to 44 Slightly below average
35 to 39 Below average
30 to 34 Much below average
Below 30 Ver much below average
High scores suggest a problem
Low scores indicatethe absenceof a problem
When interpretingT-scores, it is important to note that because
of unavoidable measurment error, the "true"T-score may be somewhat different than the observed T-score.
Age & Gender Effects
A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done using the normative sample to investigate whether CDI patterns differ based on age & gender.
A significant main effect for gender was found-boys in the normative sample scored higher
on the total CDI than girls.
Main effects were also found for gender on the interpersonal problems, ineffectiveness & Anhedonia factors- boys scored higher than girls on all three
About CDI
The CDI can be administered repeatedly in order to measure
changes in the depression over time.

to evaluate the results of treatment for depressive disorders.

It is regarded as adequate for assessing the severity
of the depressive symptoms.
Parent, teacher, and self-report ratings provide a comprehensive picture
of each situation.
The CDI is commonly used in:
schools, guidance clinics, and
medical pediatric settings by psychologists,
psychiatrists, social workers, and
These factors can be useful in
identifying particular problem
These 2 factors can be useful
in identifying major problem areas
according to observers.

May also confrim the self-report of the child or help pinpoint problem areas that
were not self-identified.
a complete revision of CDI
retains many of the essential features of the original CDI
Self-reported by child- children do not have the same level of ability as adults to understand & report strong internal emotions.
Faking good or faking bad- modifytheir answers to reflect what they think are the desired answers rather than what they actually feel.
Kovacs, M.(2003). Children's depression inventory: Technical manual. North Tonawanda, NY:MHS
CDI 2 new refinements are:
New items that focus on core
aspects of depression & related
revised scales
new norms
Availability & Pricing
CDI complete users package= $247.00
Individual Quickscore forms= $55.00
CDI Technical manual= $80.00
CDI SOftware Kit= $116.00
French & Spanish Version available
mhs.com- search CDI

Evidence of the CDI and Short CDI’s strong support for reliability and validity has been established over many years of empirical research.

This instrument is mature in the sense that there have been a number of fundamental psychometric studies.

CDI has demonstrated consistent correlations with various syndromes, other scales, and replicated predictive relationships.
Reliability & Validity
Personal Opinion??
Other Self-rated instruments:
Beck Depression Invenotory
Weinberg Screening Affective Scale
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