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NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact

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Emma Sandri

on 15 December 2014

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Transcript of NATO vs. the Warsaw Pact

The two Sides of the Cold War
North Atlantic Treaty Organization / Atlantic Alliance
NATO
Continues to influence world affairs today
Many of the economic and social tensions from the Cold War remain

Pros:
End of war has continued to introduce an
era of economic growth and a large
increase of the number of liberal democracies
in Eastern Europe

Cons:
In other parts of the world, especially
developing countries, independence was a failure
Impact on Today's Society
NATO
NATO was the first multilateral military alliance to span the northern portion of the Atlantic Ocean
The USA's entry into NATO was said to be the most far-reaching commitments they ever made
NATO symbolizes the United States' first military movement toward the Soviet Union, as well as their first peacetime military alliance
Ended the United States' isolationism

Historical Significance
- Established On May 14, 1955; in Warsaw, Poland

- Political, and military pact between the Soviet Union and several eastern
European countries
The Warsaw Pact
NATO vs. The Warsaw Pact
Analia, Nicolina, and Emma

KEY TERMS:

- The Soviet Union was put in charge of the
military and armed forces of each member state


- If any member was attacked by an outside force, they would be protected by the other member countries.



In order to deter communism, the countries who formed NATO followed
two basic principals.

#1-
To maintain military strength and political unity in order to deter aggression and military or political pressure from communist nations

#2-
To pursue a policy aimed at a relaxation of tensions, and peace keeping between East and West
Principals of NATO:
- An alliance between fifteen Western nations who felt threatened by the large number of Soviet Troops, and wanted a mutual defense plan.

- The alliance was developed shortly after World War II, in 1949, to halt the Soviet communist influence.



NATO Today

- Nowadays, NATO is actually expanding, and has even come to include several of the countries that once belonged to the Warsaw pact (except of the Soviet Union).


- To this day, NATO still protects its member countries from military aggression and political pressure.
The Warsaw Pact
Was created in response to the establishment of NATO
Was a powerful political tool for the Soviet Union
Parted Europe between the democratic west, and the communist east
Form of non-nuclear confrontation between the Soviet Union and U.S.
The Warsaw Pact, along with NATO were the main causes of the Cold War

The End of WWII:
Recall....
- At the end of World War 2, Germany was divided into 4 parts.


- Eastern Germany was given to the Soviet Union, a
communist nation.


- Western Germany was given to France,
Great Britain and the United States.
These three nations combined their
land to form the Western
democratic
Germany.
Conflict in Europe
Conflict between the Soviet Union and its democratic counterparts (France, Britain, etc,) began early after the Second World War.
Soon after the war, the Soviet Union began installing pro-Soviet governments in former Nazi controlled areas. This quick growth of their regime particularly frightened the democratic nations of Europe, as they believed that their countries could be potential targets for radical communist parties.
Plan of Action and Accomplishments


The main goal and purpose behind NATO was to stop the
advancing military and political power of the Soviet Union.
In order to do this NATO:


#1- Adopted a more militaristic stance towards
Russia/Soviet Union. This included placing more
troops along the Western/Eastern German border,
the nuclear arms race, and espionage.




#3- On May 9, 1955, Western Germany was formally allowed to join the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Similarly, after a large push by the United States, NATO members allowed the country to re militarize and re-arm.

WHY?

Allowing West Germany to rearm would be a vital step in setting up a perimeter to contain the Soviet communist expansion. However, it would also drive
apart
the two German nations even further.
#2- NATO established the
Marshall plan
, a program which gave struggling and war-torn European countries economic relief so that they could rebuild their communities, and economy.

This helped to foster free trade, create loyalty, and to help build up European military, in order to protect the weaker countries from potential "communist invasion".
THE WARSAW PACT: RUSSIA'S WAY OF FIGHTING BACK
The Warsaw Pact was created as a counterbalance to NATO. Particularly, their decision to re-arm and re-militarize West Germany.
NATO's decision to re-arm Western Germany divided Eastern and Western Germany even further (prolonged reunification)
Canada's Role in NATO
- Canada was a founding member of NATO, since its creation in 1949, and was one of its largest military spenders in the 1950's.

-Canada contributed "ARTICLE 2," in the NATO treaty, which requires its members to strive to promote a peaceful political system, and political cooperation.

- Canada contributed a lot of political man power to NATO, as well as some military contributions (less than political).


WHY?
Russia's Relationship with the Western World
Although the cold war is long since over, Russia still distrusts the members of NATO, and refuses to join the organization.
Problems:

- Isolates Russia from the world community

- Creates a political rift, which prevents close relations and ties with Russia (e.g. open/free trade)

- Provides added tension

- Creates ignorance towards NATO and other Western culture among Russian citizens
Further Effects
- The creation and demise of the Warsaw pact has
created further tension between NATO and Russia,
as more former Warsaw pact members join the
organization. This has caused Russia to feel
as though NATO is trying to turn its former allies
into new enemies.

- The end of the cold war has created nuclear stock piles
in Russia, and the United States.

- New technology was created due to Russia and the United States trying to outdo one another in technological advancements.

- The cold war created the feeling that countries must always be on their guard, and as a result military spending in the U.S. alone has increased nearly 20%.
After WW2 Germany was split into East and West Germany, bringing the Soviets a lot closer to the democratic allies (e.g. France). This created a lot of tension between both sides, as each thought the other was planning to undermine their system of government. Hence, when NATO introduced their plan to re-militarize West Germany, the Soviets felt that NATO was planning to invade.
Significance to Canada
Since the Second World War Canada has focused on creating its own separate identity from the U.S. This can be seen when Canada rejected a proposed plan by NATO, in 1948.

This plan was known as the 2 pillar plan:
NATO would be supported by two pillars, Canada and the U.S, being one, and Europe the other.

Canadians at the time opposed this plan, because they felt with the unbalance of power between the two nations, Canadian views would likely be overwhelmed by American interests. This in itself would conflict with the purpose of the alliance, which was to redress this imbalance by giving Canada an opportunity to work collectively with other states.

Significance to Canada Continued
Even though the U.S. and NATO have adapted to fit the modern world, Canada's relationship with them has remained very much the same.

Canada still desires national, continental, and international security. It wants to counter-balance US dominance in the alliance and in the North American “pillar”; and, it feels strongly that its voice should have influence in top-level, international decision-making.
Canada Going Forward
Canada's participation in NATO has allowed it to participate on a global and international level, as well as to lead in peace keeping and political issues.

Similarly, by spending the last decade improving capability and interoperability with both of the pillars of NATO, Canada has a particular role in the organization as a translator.
E.g. When new forces join the coalition, it is often up to Canada to translate (both literally and technically) the American direction to the coalition members.
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