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Nervous System Concept Map

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Yeni Busic

on 1 April 2013

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Transcript of Nervous System Concept Map

The Nervous System
Concept Map Yeni Busic
Anatomy & Physiology I The nervous system is divided into two main systems, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. The spinal cord and the brain make up the CNS. Its main job is to get the information from the body and send out instructions. The peripheral nervous system is made up of all of the nerves and the wiring.

Nervous System Consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord Central Nervous System The Peripheral nervous system is made up of two parts:
Somatic nervous system
Autonomic nervous system Peripheral Nervous System The brain lies within the skull and is shaped like a mushroom. The brain consists of four principal parts:

the brain stem
the cerebrum
the cerebellum
the diencephalon

There are two types of matter in the brain: grey matter and white matter. Grey matter receives and stores impulses. Cell bodies of neurons and neuroglia are in the grey matter. White matter in the brain carries impulses to and from grey matter. Brain Spinal Cord The spinal cord is along tube like structure which extends from the brain.
The spinal cord is composed of a series of 31 segments.
A pair of spinal nerves comes out of each segment.
The region of the spinal cord from which a pair of spinal nerves
originates is called the spinal segment.
Both motor and sensory nerves are located in the spinal cord. Atonomic Nervous System Somatic Nervous System The somatic nervous system consists of peripheral nerve fibers that pick up sensory information or sensations from the peripheral or distant organs (those away from the brain like limbs) and carry them to the central nervous system.
These also consist of motor nerve fibers that come out of the brain and take the messages for movement and necessary action to the skeletal muscles. For example, on touching a hot object the sensory nerves carry information about the heat to the brain, which in turn, via the motor nerves, tells the muscles of the hand to withdraw it immediately.

The whole process takes less than a second to happen. The cell body of the neuron that carries the information often lies within the brain or spinal cord and projects directly to a skeletal muscle. Another part of the nervous system is the Autonomic Nervous System. It has three parts:
the sympathetic nervous system
the parasympathetic nervous system
the Enteric nervous system
The Enteric nervous system is the third part of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system is a complex network of nerve fibers that innervate the organs within the abdomen like the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, gall bladder etc. It contains nearly 100 million nerves.

This nervous system controls the nerves of the inner organs of the body on which humans have no conscious control. This includes the heartbeat, digestion, breathing (except conscious breathing) etc.

The nerves of the autonomic nervous system enervate the smooth involuntary muscles of the (internal organs) and glands and cause them to function and secrete their enzymes etc.

The smallest worker in the nervous system is the neuron. For each of the chain of impulses there is one preganglionic neuron, or one before the cell body or ganglion, that is like a central controlling body for numerous neurons going out peripherally.

The preganglionic neuron is located in either the brain or the spinal cord. In the autonomic nervous system this preganglionic neuron projects to an autonomic ganglion. The postganglionic neuron then projects to the target organ.

In the somatic nervous system there is only one neuron between the central nervous system and the target organ while the autonomic nervous system uses two neurons. Neurons in the peripheral nervous system Brain Stem Cerebrum Cerebellum Diencephalon Meninges Cerebrospinal Fluid Neurons The meninges are three layers or membranes that cover the brain and the spinal cord. The outermost layer is the dura mater. The middle layer is the arachnoid, and the innermost layer is the pia mater. The meninges offer protection to the brain and the spinal cord by acting as a barrier against bacteria and other microorganisms. circulates around the brain and spinal cord. It protects and nourishes the brain and spinal cord. Basic unit of the nervous system. It receives and transmits signals throughout the nervous systems via electrochemical nerve impulses.

A neuron has a cell body, dendrites, and axon. neurons have one axon and several dendrites. These are common in the brain and spinal cord Multipolar neurons have one axon and one dendrite. These are seen in the retina of the eye, the inner ear, and the olfactory (smell) area. Bipolar Neurons Unipolar Neurons have one process extending from the cell body. The one process divides with one part acting as an axon and the other part functioning as dendrite. These are seen in the spinal cord. The brain stem is also known as the Medulla oblongata. It is located between the pons and the spinal cord and is only about one inch long. The cerebrum forms the bulk of the brain and is supported on the brain stem. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres. Each hemisphere controls the activities of the side of the body opposite that hemisphere.

The hemispheres are further divided into four lobes:

Frontal lobe
Temporal lobes
Parietal lobe
Occipital lobe This is located behind and below the cerebrum. The diencephalon is also known as the fore brain stem. It includes the thalamus and hypothalamus. The thalamus is where sensory and other impulses go and coalesce.

The hypothalamus is a smaller part of the diencephalon Pons & Midbrain Other parts of the brain include the midbrain and the pons:
The midbrain provides conduction pathways to and from higher and lower centers
The pons acts as a pathway to higher structures; it contains conduction pathways between the medulla and higher brain centers The End
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