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Experiential and Situated learning Strategies
Transcript of Experiential and Situated learning Strategies
John Dewey 1
APPLY DO Experiential Learning Framework the activity;Perform,
“Do it” the results, reactions, and observations Publicly
“What happened” Process by discussing,
“What’s important” to connect the experience to real world Examples
“So What” what was learned to a similar or different situation; Practice
“Now What” REFLECT APPLY Action Step: Attention on the Learner Experiencing: Key Concept - Planning for
discovery Key Phrases for leader:
“Sit on your Hands,”
facilitate to the “bigger picture.” Key Objectives are discovery oriented:
to arrange Personal and Group Reflection Steps Sharing: Key concept - Responding Key question - “What happened?” Processing: Key concept - Analyzing Patterns
Key question - “What’s important?” Teacher’s role:
allow adequate process time to include sharing use open-ended questioning to stimulate thinking and feeling
encourage “pair-share” and large group share Connection and Application Step Generalizing: Key concept - inference Key question - “So what?” Teacher’s role:
to guide students in making connections between personal inner meaning of the activity and the broader world. Applying: Key concept - application
Key question - “Now what?” Teacher’s role:
to facilitate students finding ways to use what they have learned in new situations. Experiential Learning Definition: "Learning by doing"
-John Dewey (Dewey and Dewey 1915)
-Wolfe and Byrne (1975) Experiential Learning is participative, interactive, and applied. It allows contact with the environment, and exposure to processes that are highly variable and uncertain. It involves the whole-person; learning takes place on the affective and behavioral dimensions as well as on the cognitive dimension. Experiential Learning Theory Learning is best conceived as a process, not in terms of outcomes. To improve learning in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students in a process that best enhances their learning – a process that includes feedback on the effectiveness of their learning efforts. “…education must be conceived as a continuing reconstruction of experience: … the process and goal of education are one and the same thing.” (Dewey 1897: 79) All learning is re-learning. Learning is best facilitated by a process that draws out the students’ beliefs and ideas about a topic so that they can be examined, tested and integrated with new, more refined ideas. Learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world. Conflict, differences, and disagreement are what drive the learning process. In the process of learning one is called upon to move back and forth between opposing modes of reflection and action and feeling and thinking. Learning is a holistic process of adaptation. It is not just the result of cognition but involves the integrated functioning of the total person—thinking, feeling, perceiving and behaving. It encompasses other specialized models of adaptation from the scientific method to problems solving, decision making and creativity. Learning results from synergistic transactions between the person and the environment Stable and enduring patterns of human learning arise from consistent patterns of transaction between the individual and his or her environment. The way we process the possibilities of each new experience determines the range of choices and decisions we see. The choices and decisions we make to some extent determine the events we live through, and these events influence our future choices. Thus, people create themselves through the choice of actual occasions they live through.
Learning is the process of creating knowledge. ELT proposes a constructivist theory of learning whereby social knowledge is created and recreated in the personal knowledge of the learner. This stands in contrast to the “transmission” model on which much current educational practice is based where pre-existing fixed ideas are transmitted to the learner. SITUATED LEARNING THEORY was first proposed by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger as a model of learning in a community of practice Explanation: People learn new skills or knowledge when they are in a real situation. It is not only can be used in education, but also can be used in real life. A model of learning in a community of practice
Learning begins with people have problems and trying to solve problems.
Learners learn by socialization, visualization, imitation.
A process SITUATED LEARNING THEORY SITUATED LEARNING THEORY People learn by what they see, hear, and do
People learn by their experience and environment. Definition: Learn something by doing something. CLAIMS OF SITUATED LEARNING THEORY Claim 1: Action Is Grounded in the Concrete Situation
in Which It Occurs Claim 2: Knowledge Does Not Transfer Between Tasks Claim 3: Training By Abstraction Is of Little Use Claim 4: Instruction Needs to be Done in Complex,
Social Environments SITUATED LEARNING THEORY