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Transcript of Health Inequalities
International Health Inequalities
What is health inequalities
"Inequalities in health arise because of inequalities in society – in the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age"
Sir Michael Marmot, 2010
The causes of health inequality are complex but they do not arise by chance.
The social, economic and environmental conditions in which we live strongly influence health.
These conditions are known as the social determinants of health, and are largely the results of public policy
Health inequalities are preventable and unjust differences in health status experienced by certain population groups.
People in lower socio-economic groups are more likely to experience chronic ill-health and die earlier than those who are more advantaged.
Health inequalities are not only apparent between people of different socio-economic groups – they exist between different genders and different ethnic groups1.
Students will be able to define health inequalities
Students will be able to identify factors leading to health inequalities in the UK
Students will be provided with an overview of international health inequalities
Social Determinants of Health
Health inequalities are often observed along a social gradient.
This means that the more favourable your social circumstances such as income or education, the better your chance of enjoying good health and a longer life.
While there is a significant gap between the wealthy and the poor, the relationship between social circumstances in health is in fact a graded one.
Source of data 'Inequalities in Mortality 1989-1998'
A child born in Swaziland is nearly 30 times more likely to die before the age of five than a child born in Sweden. (There are 119 deaths per thousand births in Swaziland compared to four in Sweden.)
A child in Cambodia is 17 times more likely to die in its first five years than a child in Canada. These are differences between average child mortality rates in those countries.
Inequalities within countries mean that the difference between the mortality of poor children in Swaziland and of rich children in the US is considerably larger
Reference: Sen, A. (2002). "Why health equity?"Health Economics 11: 659-666
Health Inequalities in Glasgow
Health Inequalities in your local community
Work in pairs , agree on 1 health issue that is very common in your local community in London.
1) Discuss the factors/or causes of the health problem (referring back to social determinants of health diagram)
2) Discuss why there are the inequalities in relation to that health problem
3) Discuss ways to prevent, solve the issue
Feedback to class
Marmot Review (2010)
This is an evidence based strategy to address the social determinants of health, the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and which can lead to health inequalities.
It draws further attention to the evidence that most people in England aren't living as long as the best off in society and spend longer in ill-health. Premature illness and death affects everyone below the top
Summary of findings
Health inequalities are largely preventable.
Not only is there a strong social justice case for addressing health inequalities, there is also a pressing economic case.
It is estimated that the annual cost of health inequalities is between £36 billion to £40 billion through lost taxes, welfare payments and costs to the NHS
Action on health inequalities requires action across all the social determinants of health, including education, occupation, income, home and community.
What are health inequalities?
What factors lead to health inequalities?
What are the international effects of health inequalities?
Next week... taking action on health inequalities..partnership working
In your groups, read over example report and reflective log
What is good about the paper?
Why did the student get a good grade?
How can looking at this example help you improve your grade?