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Bhopal Disaster

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by

Louisa You

on 12 February 2015

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Transcript of Bhopal Disaster

62
Thank You!
Major Issues
MIC storage tank #610 filled beyond recommended capacity
Recommended: 50%
Filled to: 87%
Excess reserve tank already filled
Needed extra tank for emergencies
Too much MIC being produced
Soil Contamination
Consensus over contamination
Depth up to 2 meters
UCIL site
- Neutralization Pits and Disposal Areas
- Sevin Plant and Formulation Plant
PRODUCTS
Conclusion
The information and the results that we found supported our hypothesis. The disastrous environmental and biological effects of the Bhopal disaster would have, indeed, been reduced had the MIC been properly stored and machinery defects been solved.

INPUT FROM EXPERTS:
We contacted experts from International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal and the Dow Company and they gave us valuable statistics.
Ex: The ICJB provided information about the recommendation storage capacity of MIC, which was previously mentioned to have been 50%.

Bibliography
1. "Action Plan Environmental Remediation in and around UCIL, Bhopal." Centre for Science and Environment, 2013. Accessed January 23, 2015.Gilbert, Steven.
2. "Bhopal Disaster." Toxipedia. May 30, 2014. Accessed January 5, 2015.
3. "Bhopal Accident." Corrosion Doctors. Accessed January 5, 2015.
4. "Bhopal Gas Tragedy: Toxic Waste Disposal Still Awaited." The Times of India, November 28, 2014. Accessed January 26, 2015.
5. "Bhopal Industrial Incident." Moreorless: Heroes & Killers of the 20th Century. January 29, 2006. Accessed January 12, 2015
6. Broughton, Edward. "The Bhopal Disaster and Its Aftermath: A Review." PubMed. May 10, 2005. Accessed January 19, 2015.
7. Browning, Jackson. "Union Carbide: Disaster at Bhopal." Crisis Response: Inside Stories on Managing Under Siege. January 1, 1993. Accessed January 6, 2015.
8. "Cause of the Bhopal Tragedy." Union Carbide Corporation. Accessed January 19, 2015.
9. Chouhan, T. "The Unfolding of Bhopal Disaster." Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries 18 (2005): 205-08. Accessed January 15, 2015.
10. Dzul, Steve, Steve Pankratz, and Derrick Boroski. "Failures in Process Control." The Michigan Chemical Process Dynamics and Controls Open Textbook. December 12, 2009. Accessed January 15, 2015.
11. "Environmental Studies of the Bhopal Plant Site." Union Carbide Corporation. Accessed January 11, 2015.
Environmental Effects
By: Esther Liu, Chris Wong, Jennifer Yi, Louisa You
Bhopal Disaster
Summary
Hypothesis
Machinery
Chemistry photos here (2)
If the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, had been prepared with a working disaster response system and proper storage of methyl isocyanate (MIC) gas, then the effects of the 1984 Bhopal gas tragedy could have been greatly reduced.

Alleviation Procedures
Biological Effects
Lungs
Lungs Continued
Biological Effects of Hydrogen Cyanide
Deaths
Proper Storage
Products
Carbaryl
Aldicarb
y-HCH
Waste and Byproducts
Isomers of HCH
Mercury
Chromium
Groundwater Contamination
Various results
Clay with low permeability
Higher concentration north-east
TOXIC WASTE
1984 : Highly toxic waste left
350 tonnes of stored waste
10 toxic sites
Plant has not been dismantled
ppm
1.1 million tonnes of soil
Remediation of groundwater by 'Pump and Treat'
Immediate
Sealing site
Protecting annual surface water runoff
Long-term
Decontaminating and decommissioning plant
Excavation and recineration of waste
Storage Tank: Original Piping and Instrumentation Diagram
Other Issues
Production of insecticide carbaryl (trade name "Sevin") required MIC as chemical intermediate
Improper temperature and pressure for stored MIC
Gauges measuring temperature and pressure were notoriously unreliable
Were thus ignored by workers
Proposed Solutions
Issues With Storage Tank Operating Methods
Originally, transfer pumps used to export MIC into derivatives unit
Alternative method used
Raised MIC storage tank pressure
Reverse-flow into derivatives unit (Alternate Pathway)
Consequences
Interruption of excess nitrogen flow
Corrosion of vent lines --> Rust
Rust catalyzes formation of MIC
PROPER STORAGE
Amount of MIC contained less than 50%
Stored MIC at appropriate temperature (0°C) and pressure
Batch production of MIC
Proposed by Edward Munoz
Would have eliminated large quantities of stored MIC on site
Not as much MIC spread to civilian areas
ALTERNATIVE SOLUTION
Produce carbaryl without MIC
Downside: greater manufacturing cost
Report
A few months prior, a report presented to UCC officials described the facility as
"strewn with oily old drums, used piping, pools of used oil and chemical waste likely to cause fire"
warped and corroded equipment
absence of automatic sprinklers
leaks of phosgene, MIC, chloroform
inadequately trained staff and unsatisfactory instruction methods (20)
12. Gottesfeld, Perry. "Fifteen Years After Bhopal, Lessons Learned But Not Exported." Occupational Knowledge International. December 9, 1999. Accessed January 15, 2015.
13. Kobayashi, Mitsuo, and Masamitsu Tamura. "Leakage of Toxic Methyl Isocyanate Stored in a Tank at a Chemical Plant." Failure Knowledge Database. Accessed January 14, 2015.
14. "Methyl Isocyanate." United States Environmental Protection Agency. April 1, 1992. Accessed January 29, 2015.
15. Mokhiber, Russell. "Union Carbide and the Devestation of Bhopal." Corporate Crime & Violence 8, no. 4 (1987). Accessed January 16, 2015.
16. Peterson, M. "Bhopal Plant Disaster – Situation Summary." International Dimensions of Ethics Education in Science and Engineering. March 20, 2009. Accessed January 18, 2015.
17. "Remembering Bhopal – 30 Years on." Loss Prevention Bulletin, December 1, 2014, 3, 30-34. Accessed February 5, 2015.
18. Sriramachari, S. "The Bhopal Gas Tragedy: An Environmental Disaster." Accessed January 18, 2015.
19. "TED Case Studies." Bhopal Disaster. Accessed January 31, 2015.
20. "The Bhopal Gas Tragedy." ICMR- A Case for Every Class. January 1, 2002. Accessed January 25, 2015.
21. "The Bhopal Disaster, Yesterday and Today: A System of Mass Destruction." A World to Win. February 27, 2005. Accessed February 5, 2015.
22. "What Happened in Bhopal?" International Campaign for Justice in Bhopal. Accessed January 19, 2015.
Facitities Turned Off
Refrigeration Unit (cooling system)
Shut off 5 months prior to save money
Gas Scrubber
Could neutralize MIC with caustic soda, but designed for 1/4th the pressure reached
On standby since October
Factory Alarms
Turned off so as to not cause alarm
Facilities Needing Improvements
Flare Tower
Awaiting pipe replacement
Could contain 1/4 pressure reached
Water Curtain
Set at ~13m, too short
"Knock Down" Tank
Could contain mass of chemicals that bubbled over
The Solution?
~ Technological and engineering failure
~ Working and functional refrigeration unit
~ Capable gas scrubber
~ Adequate alarm and gauge system
~ Repaired and capable flare tower
~ Adequate water curtain
~ Functional "knock-down tank (like that of the US plant)
Lack of medical preparedness
Unknown treatment
At least 3,500 verified deaths
Human injuries range from two to six hundred thousand
Biological Effects of MIC
Patients separated into four categories, each category increasing in severity
1. Minor eye ailments, throat irritation
2. Severe conjuncitivits, keratitis
3. Severe pulmonary oedema
4. Convulsions

Most important findings
Necrotizing and ulcerative changes
Severe tracheitis and bronchitis
Denudation of the epithelium
Congestion and thickening of the alveolar septa
Eosinophilic albuminous fluid
Signifies a severe disturbance in lungs
Equivalent to directly
inhaling heroin
or cocaine
Our Proposed Solution
MIC + 200°C = hydrogen cyanide (HCN)
Very deadly
Cherry-red color of blood and lungs
Sodium Thiosulfate (NaTS)
Extremely effective for detoxification for cyanide poisoning
First Aid Team
Emergency first aid procedures
Personal Protective Equipment
MIC as a Chemical Intermediate for Carbaryl
UCIL plant in Bhopal, India
Methyl Isocyanate
15,000 dead, 150,000 injured
500 liters of water into MIC
Introduction
Congestion
and Thickening
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