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The Circulatory System and Gas Exchange
Transcript of The Circulatory System and Gas Exchange
In plants: it's the opposite--consumption of CO2 and contribution of O2 to its environment due to cellular respiration / photosynthesis in humans, coordinates the movement of oxygen to the lungs via oxygen-rich blood cells, and the removal of carbon dioxide this is in order for the blood to deliver oxygen to all parts of the body direct or indirect respiration carried out through breathing Direct: organisms that are small enough to allow gas exchange directly with the outside environment
Indirect: takes place with the help of blood; involves the use of special respiratory systems such as skin, gills, tracheae, and lungs; no direct contact with the body cells and the surrounding air or water To put it simply, the principle functions of the respiratory system are:
•Ventilate the lungs
•Extract oxygen from the air and transfer it to the bloodstream
•Excrete carbon dioxide and water vapour
•Maintain the acid base of the blood http://www.ambulancetechnicianstudy.co.uk/respsystem.html Gas exchange in humans follows this path: NOse, pharynx, larynx. Air enters humans through the nostrils and goes to the nasal cavity, pharynx, and the "voice box" larynx.
Trachea. After passing through the larynx, air enters the trachea, a cartilage-lined tube. When the animal is swallowing, however, the epiglottis covers the trachea. Bronchi, bronchioles. The trachea branches off into two bronchi which enter the lungs and continue to branch repeatedly.
Alveolus. Densely surrounded by blood-carrying capillaries. Diffusion across the alveoli into the blood; Bulk flow of O2 throughout the body by means of reb blood cells; Diffusion of O2 out of red blood cells; Bulk flow of CO2 to rbc's; Bulk flow of air into and out of the lungs--contraction of the diaphragm Cliff's Ap Biology book Circulatory system http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/systems/respiration.html responsible for transporting blood throughout the body via red blood cells Fun fact!
An easy way to remember the difference between arteries and veins? Arteries start with an A and they bring blood AWAY from the heart, whereas veins bring blood toward the heart. Major organs involved:
the heart, and
blood vessels, which include the capillaries, arteries, and veins Three distinct types of circulation: pulmonary, coronary, and systemic circulation lungs heart the rest of the system The flow of blood through the body: 1. Right atrium. Deoxygenated blood enters this chamber on the right side of the heart through two veins, the (upper) superior vena cava and the (lower) inferior vena cava. 2. Right ventricle. Blood moves through the AV valve (the tricuspid valve) and enters the right ventricle. The ventricles pump the blood into the pulmonary artery and toward the lungs. 3. Left atrium. After the lungs, the oxygenated blood returns to the left atrium through the pulmonary veins. 4. Left ventricle. Blood passes through the mitral/bicuspid valve, and moves into the left ventricle. From there, the left ventricle pumps blood into the aorta, and throughout the rest of the body. Fun fact!
On average, your body has about 5 liters of blood continually traveling through it by way of the circulatory system. Cliff's AP Biology book http://www.fi.edu/learn/heart/systems/circulation.html http://library.thinkquest.org/5777/cir1.htm Open Vs. Closed Circulatory System Open: pump blood into the internal cavity called sinuses or hemoceol, which "bathe" tissues with oxygen- and nutrient-carrying fluid called hemolymph; returns to the pumping mechanism (heart) through holes called ostia. (Occurs in insects and mollusks.) Closed: nutrient-, oxygen-, and waste-carrying fluid, blood, is confined to vessels; found in earthworms, octopuses, squids, and vertebrates, for example. Cliff's