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AP US History Review

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Alisha Ongwong

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of AP US History Review

United States History Timeline Colonial America 1492-1754 The American Revolutionary Era 1754-1789 The New Nation 1789-1824 Reconstruction and
the New South 1865-1900 The Age of Jackson 1824-1840 Social and Cultural Movements
in Antebellum America The Civil War 1861-1865 The Gathering Storm 1840-1860 The Old West 1865-1900 Industrial America 1865-1900 Populism and Progressivism 1890-1917 Imperialism and World War 1 1890-1919 The Roaring Twenties 1920s The Cold War 1945-1989 The Unfinished Fifties 1950s World War 2 1941-1945 The Tumultuous Sixties 1960s Key Political Events
and Demographic Trends 1968-Present The Great Depression
and The New Deal 1929-1941 Milestones African American History, Women's History, and Native American History African American History Women's History Native American History Key Items Supreme Court Cases and Famous Trials Labor Unions, Labor Laws, and Labor Strikes Works of Literature, Art, and Music 20 Acts of Congress People In Motion Immigration and Migration U.S. Foreign Policy Latin America and the Vietnam War Fin . A.P. Exam May 15th, 2013 Iroquois Confederacy Political and linguistic differences created difficulties among Native Americans.
Iroquois Confederacy:
Most important and powerful Native American Alliance.
Successfully ended generations of tribal warfare.
Natives who interacted with English became Increasingly dependent on the fur-and-hide trade.
European diseases decimate Native American population.
smallpox
influenza
measles Similarities:
Lived in village communities
Strong sense of spirituality
Divided labor by gender
dependent on agricultural economies Differences:
Native Americans believed no man owned land and that nature was sacred
English had the concept of private property
Native Americans were matrilineal.
Possessions and authority were passed down from the mother's side. Native Americans and English Colonists Joint Stock Company
The goal was a quick profit
Charter granted by King James I, 1606
guaranteed colonists the same rights as Englishmen Made British colonies in the Chesapeake region economically viable
by mid-1700s, it was the most valuable cash crop produced in the Southern states
Virginia's economy was based off of a single item, tobacco Growth of Slavery Tobacco The
Virginia Company Indentured Servants
Main source of labor in Virginia and Maryland before 1675
The "Headright" System
50 acres for every laborer the master paid transportation for
Replaced indentured servants
More reliable source of labor
Slavery developed and spread due to tobacco cultivation requiring inexpensive labor
Slavery was legally established in all 13 colonies by early 1700s Bacon's Rebellion, 1676 Led by Nathaniel Bacon
Around 1,000 men in revolt
Poor men wanted indian land
Exposed tensions between the former indentured servants (who were poor) and their former masters (who were wealthy) Stono Rebellion, 1739 One of the earliest known acts of rebellion against slavery in America
organized and led by slaves south of Charleston, South Carolina
Attempts to flee to Spanish Florida in hopes of gaining freedom
The uprising failed and participants were executed Puritans Came to New England in family groups
Lived in small villages surrounded by farmland
Led by John Winthrop
Wanted to escape:
Political repression
Religious restrictions
Economic recession
Close relationship between church & state
believed in a trained & educated ministry
Founded Harvard & Yale College A City Upon a Hill Model Puritan society advocated by John Winthrop
Puritans felt a powerful sense of mission
build and ideal Christian society
Strict code of moral conduct
banned theatre
"Bible Commonwealth"
A democracy run on bible principles
Congregational church Puritans and Religious Freedoms Immigrated for religious freedom
Puritans did not tolerate religious dissent or diversity
Anne Hutchinson & Roger Williams challenged Puritan Authorities and were expelled Anne Hutchinson Theory of Antinomianism
argued that is there was predestination, then a person's actions were immaterial
Saints & Sinners were predetermined
Challenged clerical authority
Claimed revelations from God
Banished to Rhode Island Roger Williams Founded Rhode Island
Advanced the cause of religious toleration & freedom of thought
Rhode Island became a refuge for those persecuted for religious beliefs The Half-Way Covenant Eased requirements for church membership
allowed baptism of the children of baptized but unconverted Puritains The First Great Awakening Key Points:
Wave of religious revivals begining in New England in the 1730s
Swept across all colonies in 1740s
Key Consequence
"New Light" Ministers advocated emotional approach to religious practice
Weakened the authority of traditional "Old Light" Ministers
Established Churches
New Light ministers:
Promoted growth of New Light institutions of higher learning
Princeton
Renewed missionary spirit
conversion of many African Slaves
Greater appreciation for emotional experiences of faith
Divisions in Presbyterian & Congregational churches
Growing religious diversity
Growing popularity of itinerant ministers
Increase in numbers of women in congreations
Women become the majority in most Test Tip! Don't let the First Great Awakening slip from your memory! It has appeared on 5 of the 6 released APUSH tests. Pay special attention to reviewing the
of the First Great Awakening consequences Pennsylvania and the Quakers Pennsylvania
Founded by William Penn
Unusually liberal
representative assembly elected by the land owners
Granted freedom of religious
did not have state-supported church
Quakers
Pacifists who refused to bear arms
Advocated freedom of worship
accepted greater role for women in church services
opposed slavery
One of America's first abolitionists On the Way to Revolution Key Features
Northern merchants & Southern Planters generated great wealth
Increasing number of Non-english settlers
Religious diversity of the 13 colonies
Religious pluralism, no single dominant protestant denomination
Slavery was generally acceptable as a labor system
Legally establish in all colonies
Primarily mercantile centers
Exported agricultural goods & imported manufactured goods
maintained close economic & cultural tied with England Mercantilism England's dominant economic philosophy in 17th & 18th centuries
Goal was a favorable balance of trade for England
Colonies export raw materials and import finished goods
Designed to protect English industry & promote English prosperity
led to subordination of colonial economy to the Mother Country The Navigation Acts Part of British policy of mercantilism
Listed items that could only be exported to England
Britain policy of salutary neglect
colonies took advantage & worked out trade agreements with other countries to acquire needed products Women in Colonial America Women usually lost control of property when they married
No separate legal identity apart from their husbands
Single women & widows had the right to own property Republican Government/Republicanism Republicanism
Belief that government should be based on the consent of the governed
Inspired 18th century American revolutionaries
Key Principles:
Sovereignty comes from the people
representation based on population
Republic is preferable to monarchy
Small, limited government
Responsible to the people
Widespread ownership of property
Standing armies are dangerous & must be avoided
Agrarian life: desirable & virtuous Colonial Literature Anne Bradstreet (1612-1672)
First notable American poet
First woman to be published in colonial America
Phillis Wheatley (1753-1784)
First published African American poet
Helped created the genre of African American literature The Road to Revolution The French and Indian War, 1754-1763
The Proclamation of 1763
Stamp Act, 1765
The Coercive Acts, 1774
"Common Sense," 1776
The Enlightenment
Deism
The Declaration of Independence, 1776 The French and Indian War
1754-1763 Result of the war:
France relinquished it's North American empire
England dominated lands east of the Mississippi & parts of Canada
Pivotal point in America's relationship with Great Britain
Led Great Britain to impose revenue taxes on colonies The Proclamation of 1763 Forbade British colonists to cross an imaginary boundary along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains
Primary Purpose:
Avoid conflict between the Trans-Appalachian Indians & British colonists seeking inexpensive land Stamp Act, 1765 Primary Purpose:
Raise revenue to support British troops in America
Issues:
Does Parliament have the right to tax the colonies?
Can Parliament truly reflect colonial interests?
"No taxation without representation" Importance of the
Stamp Act Colonists show willingness to use violence rather than legal means to frustrate British policy
British maintain that colonies had no right to independence from parliamentary authority
Patriot Leaders claim the act denied them their British birthrights
Colonists believed they were entitled to all the rights & privileges of British subjects The Coercive Acts, 1774 Parliament's angry response to the Boston Tea Party
Designed to punish Massachusetts in general
Boston in particular
Massachusetts lost many of its chartered rights
Port of Boston was closed until damages caused by the Tea Party were paid "Common Sense," 1776 Political pamphlet written by Thomas Paine
A strongly worded call for independence
Used biblical analogies and references to illustrate his arguments
Thomas Paine
Opposed monarchy
Strongly favored republican government
Offered vigorous defense of republican principles
Paine's words helped overcome the loyalty many still felt for Great Britain Enlightenment 18th century philosophy
Stressed that reason can be used to improve the human condition
Enlightenment thinkers stressed the idea of natural rights
Benjamin Franklin was an Enlightenment thinker
Thomas Jefferson & the Declaration of Independence
"We hold these truths to be self-evident that that they are endowed by their Creator with certain that among these are all men are created equal; inalienable rights; life. liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Belief that God created a universe that is governed by natural law
Natural laws can be discoverd by the use of human reason Deism The Declaration of Independence, 1776 Based off of the philosophy of natural rights from the writings of John Locke
Appealed to the sympathies of the English people
Accused George III of tyranny
Thomas Jefferson was the main author of the Declaration of Independence The Revolutionary War, 1776-1781 Reasons colonists supported the war
Believed George III was a tyrant
Believed Parliament wanted to control the internal affairs of the colonies without consent of the colonists
Wanted greater political participation in policies affecting the colonies The French American Alliance
and The Battle of Saratoga, 1777 Battle of Saratoga
Convinced the French to declare war on Great Britain and openly aid the American cause
The French
Military and financial assistance played a key role in American victory
Not motivated by a commitment to republican ideals
Primary motive was to weaken the British Empire
French-American Alliance influenced the British to offer generous peace terms in the Treaty of Paris Test Tip! You are expected to know the
of the pivotal Battle of Saratoga consequences Treaty of Paris, 1783 Established America's new boundaries
Stretched west to the Mississippi, north to the Great Lakes, and south to Spanish Florida
America agreed that loyalists would not be further persecuted The Articles of Confederation
to the Constitution Articles of Confederation
Writers were cautious about giving the new government powers they had just denied Parliament
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
Lack of authority to tax
lack of authority to exercise authority directly over the states
Most important accomplishment was the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Provided for the orderly creation of territorial governments and new states
Excluded slavery north of the Ohio River
Supported public education Shays' Rebellion,
1786 Sparked by economic frustrations of Massachusetts farmers who were losing their farms to debts
Leaders of the rebellion sought changes:
End to farm foreclosures
End to imprisonment for debt
Relief from oppressively high taxation
Increased circulation of paper money
Leaders did not attempt to overthrow the government of Massachusetts.
Helped convince key leaders that the Articles of Confederation were too weak.
There was a need for stronger central government The Federal Constitution The constitution was a result of a series of compromises that created a government acceptable to large and small states
The Virginia Plan
The New Jersey Plan
The Great Compromise
Electoral College
Three-fifths Compromise The Virginia Plan "The Large States Plan"
Proposed representation be population based The New Jersey Plan "The Small States Plan"
Argued against the Virginia plan
If congress were population based, small state votes wouldn't matter
Said that states should have an equal vote in Congress The Great Compromise Congress would be bicameral
The House of Representatives
Followed the Virginia plan.
Population based
Taxation bills would begin in the house
The Senate
Followed the New Jersey Plan
Equal representation
Approve/reject presidential treaties and appointments Electoral College A group of presidential voters
The people were viewed as too ignorant to elect a president The Three-Fifths Compromise "How will slaves be counted when determining a state's population?"
Southern states wanted more votes in the House
3/5 of the slaves accounted for the state's population Provisions in the Constitution Separation of powers
Organizes the national government into 3 branches
Authority of Congress to declare war
Guarantee the legality of slavery
Creation of an Electoral college
safeguard the presidency from direct popular election
Impeachment of the President
Presidential State of the Union message
Provisions for ratifying the Constitution
Federalism
Bicameral Legislature
Enumeration of the powers of Congress
The Three-Fifths Compromise Provisions NOT included in the Constitution 2 term limit for presidents
Universal manhood suffrage
Presidential cabinet
The direct election of senators
Guarantees of freedom of speech and the press
Added in the Bill of Rights
The right to a speedy and public trial
Added in the Bill of Rights
Idea of political parties
The framers opposed political parties
political parties promoted selfish interests, caused divisions, and threatened the existence of republican government Test Tip! APUSH test writers often qualify their questions on the Constitution with the phrase, . Remember, the Bill of Rights was
part of the Constitution as ratified in 1788. As a result, guarantees of freedom of speech and press were not part of the constitution when it was ratified. "as ratified in 1788" not The Federalist Papers. 1787 The Federalists
Authors:
Alexander Hamilton
James Madison
John Jay
Written to support ratification of the Constitution The Anti-Federalists Feared that a strong central government would become tyrannical
Opponents of federalism did the following:
Support from the rural areas
Argued that the President would have too much power
Feared Congress would levy heavy taxes
Feared the government would raise a standing army
Believed a new national government would overwhelm the states
Argued that individuals rights needed to be protected Alexander Hamilton's Economic Policies Purpose
promote economic growth
Strengthen the new nation's finances
give financial interests (such as Eastern merchants) a stake in the new government
Proposals
Establish a National Bank
Adopt a protective tariff to raise revenue
Fund the national debt
Assume state debts incurred during the Revolutionary War
Tax distilled liquor to raise revenue
Expand domestic manufacturing
Financially support domestic manufacturers
Congress rejected this proposal Controversy with Jefferson Hamilton
"loose" interpretation of the constitution
Used the implied powers of the "necessary and proper" clause to justify proposals
Believed that what the Constitution does not forbid, it permits
Jefferson
"Strict" interpretation of the Constitution
Believed that what the Constitution does not permit, it forbids. Washington's Farewell Address The Warning
warned about the dangers of foreign entanglements
Impact on American Foreign Policy
Opponents of the President Wilson's League of Nations justified their positions with Washington's warning.
1930s isolationists would use Washington's Farewell Address to justify support of the Neutrality Acts Test Tip! Almost all exams include at least one question about Hamilton's Financial Plan. The Presidency of Thomas Jefferson
1801-1809 The "Revolution of 1800"
Victory of Jefferson and the Democratic-Republicans marked the end of the Federalist Decade
Referred to as a revolution because the party in power gave up power peacefully after losing an election Jeffersonian Democracy The yeoman farmer
virtue and independence from corrupting influences
cities, bankers, financiers, and industrialists.
Federal government must not violate the rights of the states
This principal of "States' Rights" is proclaimed in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Freedom of speech and the press are essential rights
Alien and Sedition Acts violated this principle
Scope and activities of the federal government should be reduced. The Louisiana Purchase, 1803 Jefferson desired the port of New Orleans to provide an outlet for Western crops
Napoleon was motivated to sell the Louisiana Territory after the French army failed to suppress a slave revolt in Haiti
Purchase of territory violated Jefferson's strict interpretation of the Constitution.
Jefferson hoped to perpetuate an agricultural society
make abundant lands available to future generations
Louisiana Purchase was America's largest acquisition of territory The Marshall Court Chief Supreme Court Justice, John Marshall
Believed a strong central government was in the nation's best interest
Marbury v. Madison
Opposed states' rights
Upheld the supremacy of federal legislation over state legislation
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
ruled that a state cannot encroach on a contract
Economic Nationalism
Marshall promoted business enterprise
McCulloch c. Maryland
Struck down Maryland law taxing the Baltimore branch of the National Bank Marbury v. Madison, 1803 Established principle of judicial review
The ruling gave the Supreme Court the authority to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional The War of 1812 Causes:
British impressments of American seamen
British interference with American commerce
British aid to Native Americans on the frontier
Consequences:
Contributed to fall of the Federalist Party
Intensifying nationalist feelings
Promoting industrialization
Advancing the career of Andrew Jackson Test Tip! Most exams have a question about Marbury v. Madison and Judicial Review It is also important to remember that Marshall was a proponent of a strong central government and an opponent of states' rights. The Presidency of James Monroe,
1817-1825 Clay's American System
An Era of Good Feelings
...Or Rising Tensions?
The Missouri Compromise
The Monroe Doctrine Clay's American System Internal Improvements (transportation projects)
Roads & canals
Goal was to promote trade & unite the various sections of the country
"American System"
Called for tariffs to protect domestic industries & fund internal improvements
The south benefited the least
Relied on agricultural plantations and slave labor An Era of Good Feelings
or Rising Tensions? Demise of the Federalist party
Democratic-Republicans in control of Congress and the Presidency
Illusion of a national political consensus was shattered
Protective tariffs
Federal aid for internal improvements
Expansion of slavery into new territories The Missouri Compromise,
1820 Settled first major 19th century conflict over slavery
Maine enters the union as a free state
Missouri enters the union as a slave state
remaining territory of the Louisiana Purchase about the 36° 30' line to slaver Test Tip! It's important to review the purposes of Clay's American System and the provisions of the Missouri Compromise of 1820 The Monroe Doctrine,
1823 Unilateral declaration of principles that asserted American independence from Europe in Foreign policy.
Had the support of the English
Asserted that Western political systems are different and separate from Europe
Warned European nations against further colonial ventures into the Western Hemisphere
promised that the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of European Nations
Successful due to the British Navy Jacksonian Democracy Belief in the Common Man
Great respect for the common sense and abilities of the common man
Jackson was seen as a common man who represented the interests of the people Jacksonian Democracy Expanded Suffrage
Jacksonians dramatically expanded White male suffrage
Jackson Administration
nominating conventions replace legislative caucuses Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonians supported patronage
Policy of placing political supporters in office
Believed that victorious candidates had a duty to reward their supporters and punish their opponents Jacksonian Democracy Opposition to privileged elites
Jacksonians were champions of the common man
They despised the special privileges of Eastern elites Tariff of Abominations, 1828 Tariffs passed between 1816 and 1828
first tariffs in American history with the primary purpose of protection
Increased the cost of imported goods
Protected some industries in the North
South opposed the tariff
Their economy was based off exports
Forced John C. Calhoun to formulate his doctrine of nullification The Doctrine of Nullification Developed by John C. Calhoun
Drew heavily on the states' rights arguments advanced in the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions
Calhoun argued
a state can refuse to recognize an act of Congress that it considers unconstitutional Opposition to Nullification Webster-Hayne Debate
Daniel Webster forcefully rejected nullification
"Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."
Jackson's opposition to nullification enhanced his reputation as a strong President The Bank War Jackson's veto
Vigorously opposed the bill to re-charter the Second Bank of the United States (BUS)
Believed the bank was a stronghold of special privileges
Argued BUS was beneficial to advocates of "Hard Money"
Hostile to the interests of the common people who elected him
Consequences
Jackson supported removal of federal deposits from the Bank of the United States
Jackson's attack on BUS caused expansion on credit and speculations
Number of State banks increased
each issued it's own currency
Emergence of a competitive 2 party system
Whigs v. Jacksonians Forced Removal of Native Americans Worcester v. Georgia, 1831
Cherokees tried to mount a court challenge to a removal order
Supreme Court upheld rights of the Cherokee tribe to their lands
Jackson refused to recognize the Court's decision
"John Marshall has made his decision: now let him enforce it."
Showed the lack of power the Judicial branch had in enforcing it's rulings Test Tip! It is important to study Andrew Jackson and his pivotal role in the nullification crisis, the bank war, and the forced removal of Native Americans. Trail of Tears The route taken by Native Americans as they were relocated to the Indian Territory of Oklahoma
Approximately one-quarter of the Cherokee people died on this trail Planters & Slaves in the
Antebellum South, 1816-1860 Factors that made cotton the most important cash crop in the South
Invention of the Cotton Gin
Rich new farm land
Rise of textile manufacturing in England created enormous demand for cotton
Southern Society
Majority of white adult males were small farmers & did not own slaves
Small minority of slave-owning planters dominated the antebellum south
cost of slave labor rose 1800-1860 Slave Society Dramatic increase in the South's slave labor force was due to American-born slaves
Free African Americans were able to obtain land despite racial discriminating
Southern legal codes
Did not uniformly provide for legalization and stability of slave marriage
Slaves were able to marry
Marriage was common on Southern Plantations
Majority of slaves adapt to oppressive conditions
Slave revolts were infrequent
Avoided work by faking illnessess & working slow Transportation Revolution New Developments
Erie Canal completed, 1825
sparked a period of canal building that lasted until 1850
Wide use of steamboats, 1820s & 1830s
First railroad appeared in the United States in 1828 Strengthened commercial & political tiers between New York City and growing cities on the Great Lakes
helped open the west tp settlement & trade
Steamboats dramatically increase river traffic & lower river transportation costs
Railroads enabled farmers in the Mid-West easier access to urban markets in the east
Canals, railroads and steamboats had the least impact on the South Consequences The Role of Women in
Antebellum America The Cult of Domesticity/Republican Motherhood
Women could not vote, serve on juries, or perform other civil tasks
"Republican Motherhood"
Women had a vital role to play:
Raise children to be virtuous citizens of the new American Republic
Proponents argue that women should be educated because of this idea Test Tip! Do not be surprised to see republican motherhood questions on the AP exam, as most APUSH exams have asked about this topic. There was even a recent DBQ based on this topic. Students should be able to identify The Cult of Domesticity/
Republican Motherhood Factory Workers in Lowell First half of 19th century
textile mills in Lowell, Massachusetts, relied heavily on women and child labor
1820s & 1830s
majority of workers were young, unmarried women
Prior to the Civil War, Irish immigrants began to replace New England Farm Girls in the textile mills Changing the Role of Women in
Antebellum America Led by middle-class women
Promoted a broad-based platform of legal and educational rights
Close links with the anti-slavery and temperance movements
Held conventions in the Northeast and the Midwest but not in the South Seneca Falls Convention, 1848 Organized and led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott
The "Declaration of Sentiments and Resolutions"
Demanded greater rights of Women
"We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men and women are created equal
Called for Women's Rights in the following areas:
Women's suffrage
Right to retain property after marriage
Greater divorce and child custody rights
equal educational opportunities Test Tip! It is important to know what reforms the Seneca Falls Convention . It is also important to know what reforms the convention did
for. called for not call Dorothea Dix Worked to reform the treatment of people with mental and emotional disabilities
She was not involved in the Women's Rights Movement Abolition and Abolitionists The Second Great Awakening
A wave of religious enthusiasm
led by itinerant preachers
Charles Finney
Lyman Beecher
The Second Great Awakening played an important role in making Americans aware of the moral issue posed by slavery American Colonization
Society Worked to return freed slaves to the west coast of Africa
Primarily led by middle-class men & women William Lloyd Garrison The editor of the radical abolitionist newspaper, The Liberatory
one of the Founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society
Famous quote from the first issue of The Liberator on January 1, 1831:
"Let Southern oppressors tremble... I will be harsh as Truth and as uncompromising as Justice... I am in earnest—I will not retreat a single inch—and I WILL BE HEARD!"
Garrison's support for women's rights split the American Anti-Slavery Society into rival factions Frederick Douglass Most prominent Black Abolitionist during the Antebellum period
Championed equal rights for women and Native Americans
"I would unite with anybody to do right and with nobody to do wrong." Test Tip! Although Frederick Douglas is an extremely important person in U.S. History, people tend to forget about William Lloyd Garrison. Though Douglas may tower over Garrison in terms of importance, APUSH test writers have included a number of questions about this fervent abolitionist in the past. Sarah Grimké One of the first women to publicly support both abolition and women's rights
"I ask no favor of my sex," declared Grimké. "I surrender not our claim to equality. All I ask of our brethren is that they will take their feet off our necks." Transcendentalism A philosophical and literary movement of the 1800s that emphasized living a simple life while celebrating the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination
Henry David Thoreau and Ralph Waldo Emerson were leading transcendentalist writers Utopian
Communities Shared a faith in perfectionism
belief that humans have the capability to achieve a better life through conscious acts of will
Utopian communities strove to:
Escape the competitiveness of American life
Regulate moral behavior
Create cooperative lifestyles
Best known utopian communities:
Brook Farm
New Harmony
Oneida Community Cultural Advances Education
McGuffy Readers
Best Known & most widely used school books during the 19th century
Included stories, poems, essays, and speeches supporting patriotism and moral values
Newspapers Flourished during the the first half of the 19th century
Educational reformers
Wanted compulsory school laws
Use state and local taxes to finance public education Manifest Destiny and Territorial Expansion Manifest Destiny
Belief that the United States would inevitably expand westward to the Pacific Ocean
Used to gain public support for American territorial expansion Texas Become the Lone Star Republic in 1836
Despite favoring territorial expansion, President Jackson opposed the admission of Texas in fear of controversy over slavery
Texas was an independent republic until 1845 Oregon 1844 Election Campaign
Polk promises to take all of the Oregon land under dispute between the United States and Britain
"Fifty-four forty or fight"
U.S. & Britain reach a compromise that established the northern boundary of Oregon at the 49th parallel The Mexican War President Polk claimed that Mexican troops illegally crossed into American territory, attacking and killing American soldiers
"American blood upon the American soil"
Whigs
Led by Abraham Lincoln
Opposed the Mexican War
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the Mexican War
The U.S. gained California and New Mexico
Recognition of the Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas
Wilmot Proviso
Called for the prohibition of slavery in lands acquired in the Mexican war
Never became federal law The Compromise of 1850 Negotiations
Stephen A. Douglas, Daniel Webster, Henry Clay, and John C. Calhoun played key roles in the negotiations
Abraham Lincoln did not play a role in the negotiations
Provisions
California enters as a free state
Abolition of the slave trade in the District of Columbia
Continued protection of slavery in the District
Stricter fugitive slave act
Establishment of territorial government in New Mexico and Utah, without an immediate decision on the status of slavery Test Tip! The Wilmot Proviso is so well known that it is easy to believe that it became law. It did not. Although the House passed the Wilmot Proviso twice, the Senate rejected. APUSH test writers use the phrase "passage of the Wilmot Proviso" as a tempting but incorrect answer. Also note that the Wilmot Proviso did not support popular sovereignty Popular Sovereignty and the Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854 Popular Sovereignty
Settlers of a given territory would have the sole right to decided whether or not slavery would be permitted there
Senator Stephen A. Douglas was a leading proponent of popular sovereignty
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Proposed that the Territory of Nebraska would be divided into two territories
Kansas & Nebraska
Status as a slave state would be determined by popular sovereignty Consequences of the Kansas-Nebraska Act Repealed the Missouri Compromise, 1820
heightened sectional tensions
Permitted expansion of slavery beyond the South
Led to a divisive debate over the expansion of slavery into territories
Ignited bloody contest for control of Kansas
Split the Democratic Party
Sparked the formation of the Republican Party The Dred Scott Case, 1857 Ruling:
Slaves could not sue in federal court
Slaves were private property under the Constitution
Slaves can be taken to any territory and legally be help by slavery
Slaves could not be taken from master regardless of the territory's "free" or "slave" status
Consequences:
Ruling invalidated the Northwest Ordinance of 1782 & Missouri Compromise of 1820
Major issue in the Lincoln-Douglas debates
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