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Probability, DNA, and Meiosis
Transcript of Probability, DNA, and Meiosis
Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid
Made up of many genes joined together.
Each GENE is made up of a section of DNA
What are the odds? How likely is it an event will occur?
How likely is it your offspring will have the same trait as one or both of the parents?
Meiosis Function: To divide parent cells (diploid) with 46 chromosomes into gametes with only 23(haploid) chromosomes
Types: A, B, AB, and O
Mutation: changes that may occur in chromosomes or genes.
DNA molecule is made up of four different
alway paired together in a long code
several hundred to a million for reach gene
- order of the nitrogen bases which instructs the type of protein that will be made.
Recombinant: When scientists change the way DNA is formed
Protein synthesis- make
protein- solid part of the cell
has only one strand, different sugar than in
DNA (ribose instead of deoxiribose)
Bases of RNA adenine, guanine, cytosine and URACIL (NOT THYMINE)
MESSENGER RNA- copies the coded message and carries to ribosome in cytoplasm
TRANSFER RNA-carries amino acids to ribosomes and adds them to growing protein.
Interphase: replication of chromosomes
Prophase I: nuclear membrane disappears, centrioles go to opposite sides, spindles fibers form, chromatids attached by centromeres
Metaphase I: centromeres line up in the middle. DNA crosses over(exchange)
Anaphase I: spindle fibers separate each chromatid
Telophase I: may or may not appear, could just skip to prophase II
Prophase II: centrioles duplicate, migrate to opposite poles and form spindle fibers and attaches to each chromosome
Metaphase II: centromeres of Chromosomes line up in the middle
Anaphase II: Centromere of each chromosome splits and one chromosome splits to each side of the cell
Telophase II: Nuclear membrane form around each newly divided chromosomes, spindle fibers disappear, cytokenesis separates the rest of the cell
Haploid: half the number of chromosomes humans, 23 (meiosis)
Diploid: the number of chromosomes in a most cells (mitosis) humans 46
Genetic engineering: Changing the structure of DNA molecules by replacing the original genes with new ones from another DNA molecule.
Sex-linked trait: a gene carried on the sex chromosome (X) that is present in both sexes; one copy in one sex male (XY), two in the other (XX)female.
Y-linked trait are very rare, most disease causing genes are carried on the X chromosome.
Colorblind: Cones, located in the center of the retina each contain a light sensitive pigment, when it’s defective, (carried on X)it shows up!
The blood of a person with hemophilia does not clot normally. A person with this disorder will not bleed more profusely or more quickly than other people; however, he bleeds for a longer time.
Sickle Cell anemia is a group of inherited red blood cell disorders Sickle red blood cells become hard, sticky and shaped like sickles used to cut wheat. They clog the flow in the blood stream and then break apart
Down Syndrome is a genetic condition caused by extra genetic material (genes) from the 21st chromosome.We know that the extra 21st chromosome causes an extra dose of some proteins. Those proteins cause the typical features of Down Syndrome. 1 in 800 live births to 1 in 1,100 live births
Turner syndrome is a chromosomal condition that exclusively affects girls and women.(Short stature, underdeveloped ovaries)Turner syndrome is caused by the complete or partial absence of one of the two X chromosomes normally found in women. A blood test, called a karyotype, analyzes the chromosomal composition of the individual
Karyotype: Diagram the chromsome!
Antigen is found on the surface
of the blood cell.
Type of antigens are A, B, both A and B.
When there is NO antigen, Type O for zero