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Basics of the Body

Week 1

David Barrett

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Basics of the Body

Basics of the Body
biochemistry, organelles/cells, tissues, and medical terminology
-The Carbon atom has
6 protons
6 neutrons
6 electrons
-Carbon has 4 electrons in its outermost energy level, therefore it needs four electrons to complete its octet.
-Carbon covalently shares
electrons with up to four other atoms. This characteristic makes Carbon very versatile when it comes to chemical structures.
Carbon Skeletons Vary

Carbon chains
Vary in length
May be linear or branched
May contain only c-c single bonds or may contain double and/or triple bonds at various locations

Carbon rings
May contain only single c-c bonds, or may contain double bonds

Carbon skeletons come in may shapes and forms. These are basically Hydrocarbons (molecules composed of only Carbon and Hydrogen atoms).

Functional groups, have specific properties characteristic to their chemical structure and further add variety to the Hydrocarbon skeleton molecular structures.

Monomers are molecules that are chemically bonded through dehydration synthesis to make polymers, which are the functional macromolecules.

Polymers can be broken down into their monomer components through hydrolysis.

Monomers ↔ Polymers
Dehydration ↔ Hydrolysis
Carbohydrates aka Saccharides
Are Aldoses and Ketoses
Carbohydrates have the atomic ratio C:H2O.
They are composed of many monosaccharide (monomers) chemically combined through dehydration synthesis into polysaccharides (polymers).
Glucose C6H12O6 is made by plants and is the most common monosaccharide.
Serve as energy sources for plants, animals and other organisms. Converted into ATP energy.
Serve as structural molecules in plants and other organisms.
Dietary source: plant products.
Cellulose is bulk or fiber.

Hydroxyl Group
— OH
Carbonyl Group
— C = O


Carboxyl Group
Organic Acids
Carboxylic Acid

Amino Group
— NH2
Organic Bases

Phosphate Group
— (OPO3)2-
Organic Phosphates


Most abundant glucose
polymer, component
of plant cell walls

Plants store glucose in starch polymers (grains, tubers). Serve as glucose source for animals.

Very branched glucose polymer. Animals store glucose as glycogen.
AKA animal starch.

Lipids Are Hydrophobic

Lipids include:
fatty acids, steroids,
phospholipids, and waxes.

Because they are not soluble in water, they are good structural, insulation, transport, and storage macromolecules,
such as:
Adipose tissue
cell membranes components
oils and waxes
Saturated fatty acids usually come from animal sources and are solid at room temperature, these are high in caloric value.

Unsaturated fatty acids usually come from plant sources and are liquid at room temperature, these are lower in caloric value.

Fatty Acids Are Long Hydrocarbons with a Carboxylic Acid Functional Group
-The diagram to the left, depicts a glycerol being dehydrated with a fatty acid.
-This reaction occurs a total of three times to form a triglyceride, as seen on the diagram to the right
-Triglyceride molecules transport fats in the bloodstream and serve as building blocks for other lipids, such as phospholipids.

Triglycerides: Three Fatty Acids Dehydrated to One Glycerol

. A steroid’s structure is composed of carbon rings.
. Steroids serve as the structural components of many hormones, such as
estrogen and testosterone.
. Steroids are essential for maintaining the fluidity of plasma membranes.

Proteins are the structural components of living tissue. They also serve as enzymes, hormones, and immunoglobulins, among many other roles.
Proteins are composed of amino acids (a.a.). We acquire a.a. by consuming meat, fowl, fish, dairy, eggs, legumes, and nuts

Proteins: Composed of Amino Acids

Amino acids are the monomers that are dehydrated to form polypeptides or proteins.

Humans have about 20 different amino acids from which proteins are synthesized. The difference between one protein and another has to do with the number of amino acids that a protein contains and the unique sequences in which the amino acids are arranged.

Protein synthesis occurs in the ribosomes of cells and is controlled by genetic information.

Protein Synthesis:

Amino acids are chemically combined through dehydration synthesis by peptide bonds to form polypeptides (protein)

The sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is determined by genetic information

Nucleic Acids Have Sugars, Nitrogenous Basesand Organic Phosphate Components

Nucleic Acids serve as information macromolecules, such as DNA and RNA. (We will study these further in the future.)

Another type of Nucleic Acid, ATP, serves as the energy currency of cells. (We will study ATP further in the future.)

Nucleotides (picture at left) are the molecular components of Nucleic Acids.

Nucleotides are chemically joined to form DNA, a double stranded helix. The bases, of each strand, hydrogen bond to each other.

The phosphates and sugars form the backbone of the double helix. The sequence of bases on the DNA determines the amino acid sequence of proteins.

Four types of bases:
Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Thymine (T), and Cytosine (C). These bases bind to each other. A always binds with T,
G always binds with C.

Structure Is Always Related to Function
Living organisms require thousands of different types of molecules to maintain their structure and sustain their body’s functions.

The ability of Carbon to bond with four other atoms is the basis for the vast variety of chemical structures found in organisms.

Plasma Membrane
Made of Phospholipids, Cholesterol, Protein
Controls movement of materials in/out of cell
Barrier between cell and its environment
Maintains homeostasis
May contain 1 or more nucleoli
Holds DNA

Controls cell activities
Contains the hereditary material of the cell
Smooth or rough
Smooth w/o ribosomes
Rough with embedded ribosomes
Network of tubes or membranes
Connects to nuclear envelope & cell membrane

Carries materials through cell
Aids in making proteins

Small bodies free or attached to ER
Made of rRNA & protein
Synthesizes proteins
Double membrane
Outer membrane smooth
Inner membrane folded into cristae
Breaks down sugar (glucose) molecules to release energy
Site of aerobic cellular respiration
Basic Unit of structure and function
Specificity is determined by protein synthesis
that is determined by which genes are being expressed during DNA replication
Cells group together according to specificity.
Groups have common structure and function
Cells of similar function and structure organize into layers or masses
Special terminology is used to prevent misunderstanding
Exact terms are used for:

Human body divided into axial and appendicular portions
Axial – contains head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular – contains arms and legs

1. Cranial Cavity – Brain
2. Vertebral Canal – Spinal Cord
3. Thoracic Cavity
4. Abdominopelvic Cavity
Organs located in thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities are called viscera
*Viscera is just another name for organs in the abdomen


Broad, thin muscle that separates the thoracic (chest) cavity from the lower abdominopelvic cavity
Middle section of chest cavity
Esophagus, trachea, and thymus are located within the mediastinum
Contains all of the chest organs except the lungs
Organs in abdominal cavity: stomach, liver, spleen, gallbladder, kidneys and most of small & large intestines
Abdominopelvic Cavity – contains abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
Cavities made of skeletal muscle, bone, and skin
Extends from diaphragm to pelvis
Organs in pelvic cavity: part of large intestine, bladder, reproductive organs
Head Cavities
Oral Cavity – Teeth and Tongue
Nasal Cavity – nose, right/left septum
Orbital Cavity – eyes & nerves
Middle Ear Cavity – Middle Ear Bones
Thoracic and Abdominopelvic Membranes
Walls of thoracic compartments which contain the lungs lined with parietal pleura membranes
Visceral pleura membrane covers the lungs themselves
Parietal – membrane attached to wall of cavity
Visceral – deeper membrane that covers internal organ
Visceral and parietal membranes secrete a watery fluid into the pleural cavity
Serous fluid between the two layers acts as a lubricant and reduces friction from muscle movement

Pericardial Membranes
Surround the heart
If I were to stand in anatomical position, how would I stand?

Body is standing erect
• Face Forward
• Upper limbs at the sides
• Palms forward

Relative Positions
Superior – above
Inferior – below
Anterior – toward the front (ventral)
Posterior – toward the back (dorsal)
Medial – midline dividing body into right and left halves

Lateral – toward side
Bilateral – paired structures, one on each side (ie. The lungs)
Proximal – body part is closer to point of attachment to the trunk than another body part (ie. The elbow is proximal, closer to the trunk, than the wrist

Distal – body part is farther from a point of attachment to the trunk than another body part (ie. Fingers are distal, further from the trunk, than the wrist
Superficial – near the surface
Deep – more internal

Body Sections
Sagittal – divides body into right and left portions
Transverse – divides body into upper and lower portions
Coronal – divides body into front and back portions

Scientific Terms
Acromial – point of the shoulder
Antebrachial – Forearm
Axillary – Armpit
Buccal – Cheek
Celiac – Abdomen
Coxal – Hip
Crural – Leg
Femoral – Thigh
Genital – Reproductive
Gluteal – Buttocks
Inguinal – Groin
Mental – Chin
Occipital – Lower back of head
Orbital – Eye Cavity
Otic – Ear
Palmar – Palm of hand
Pectoral – Chest
Pedal – Foot
Plantar – Sole of Foot
Popliteral – Area behind the knee
Sacral – Back region between hipbones (where tailbone is)
Tarsal – Instep of foot
Umbilical – Navel
Vertebral – Spinal Column

proteins which inhibit, prohibit and/or catalyze reactions
differentiation by shape
makes them highly selective
enzymatic rxns:
Substrate: reactant of rxn
binds to activation site which is configured for binding to certain enzyme to corresponding stubstrate
enzyme binds substrate, converted into different molecule and forms product(s)
Differ from other catalysts in their specificity
Shape (of enzyme) determines which substrate they will bind, controlling which rxns take place
the set of enzymes made in a cell determine metabolic pathways in the cell
There are over 4000 biochemical rxns known to be catalyzed by enzymes
Enzyme activity
activity is affected by secondary molecules
activators-allow enzyme to bind to the active site on substrate
inhibitors-prevent enzyme from binding to active site on substrate
Cofactor-inorganic molecule that helps bind substrate to active site of enzyme
Coenzyme-organic molecule that does the same
Activity is also affected by environmental factors:
temperature, pressure, pH, and substrate concentration
Cholesterol is well known subgroup (sterols) of steroids
Diets rich in saturated fats promote accumulation of LDL “bad cholesterol” in the wall of arteries, reducing blood flow and promoting hypertension and the incidence of strokes.
LDL-oxidized cholesterol
occurs in blood
catabolism vs. anabolism
an-molecules join together (dehydration)
cat-molecules break apart (hydrolysis)
Cellular Respiration
ATP: gold standard for energy
adenosine triphosphate
release of phosphate groups - release energy
enzymes reduce activation energy for the oxidation rxn of glucose
glycolysis (anaerobic respiration) - occurs in the cytosol of cell
nets 2 ATP per one glucose
1 glucose produces 2 pyruvate here
pyruvates then combine with coenzyme A to form acetyl coA
transported into mitochondrion where it then..
citric acid cycle (aerobic respiration) - occurs in mitochondria
nets 34-36 ATP per one glucose (depends on type of cell)
Fatty Acids also provide energy
FA's converted Acetyl CoA through beta oxidation
occurs in mitochondrial matrix
series of dehydration/hydrolysis rxns requiring enzymes
Proteins provide energy
deamination of AA's
removal of amine groups
occurs in liver
leads to formation of Acetyl CoA
All these pathways are regulated by rate limiting enzymes
enzymes in the first step of the pathway
present in limited quantities
any mixture or solution containing free ions which act as a electrically conductive medium
sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), bicarbonate (HCO3-, magnesium (Mg2+), chloride (C1-), hydrogen phosphate (HPO42-), and hydrogen carbonate (HCO3-).
regulate our nerve and muscle function, our body's hydration, blood pH, blood pressure, and the rebuilding of damaged tissue.
regulatory molecules secreted by various glands, tissues and organs in the body
influence physiological and psychological behaviors.
digestion, metabolism, growth, reproduction, and mood control.
Citric Acid Cycle
central metabolic pathway which degrades main metabolites w/in matrix of mitochondria
acetyl CoA enters mitochondrial matrix
through 8 steps, yeilds 2 CO2s, donates electrons to nucleotide complexes, produces intermediates
intermediates recycled to produce carbs, AA's, and FA's
Converted to Acetyl CoA through pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
uses NADH and FADH from TCA cycle to create signaling cascade along matrix intermembrane space.
Cascade transgresses along protein complexes nestled w/in intermembrane space
protons (initiated by NADH) are pumped from negative side of membrane to positive side to create cascade.
each protein complex has a different role
this is what nets up to 36 ATP!
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