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Copy of Cambodia & Mobile Phones
Transcript of Copy of Cambodia & Mobile Phones
Ohio University Statement of the Problem Rural Population Education spending Infrastructure Funding Education and Poverty
Reduction There appears to be a
reduction. 1 Allows Cambodia to compete
on global scale What's
the Point? Mobile phones are
a viable alternative to
education and they avoid the exisiting problems in
Cambodia Why Mobile Phones? Cambodia's Population: 14.7 million
5 & 1/2 Thousand Internet Hosts (2010)
78 Thousand Internet Users (2009)
5.59 Million Mobile Phone (2009) - With Coverage expanding rapidy in rural areas 2 2 - (Central Intelligence Agency, 2011) Problems Abound Inhibiting
use of Computers
80% of the population is rural
Electricity in rural areas mainly comes from generators or batteries
Computers are expensive
Corruption prevents some from accessing computers 2 3 3. Sorasak, & Chriv, 2009-2010
4. Vuth, Than, Phanousith, Phissamay, & Tai, 2007
5. Wijers, 2010
6. D. C. personal communication, April 24, 2011 4 5, 6 The high incompletion rate of secondary schooling is a major problem
In the school year 2009 - 2010 completion rate of upper secondary school (Grades 10, 11, 12) was 26.1% and 48.7% in lower secondary school (Grades 7, 8, 9)
Students are needed to work at home. 7 7. Cambodian Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. (2010).
8. Tan, 2006 8 Education in Cambodia Literacy Levels are Low Spending is Low 9. EIU country data, 2011
10. World Bank, 2011
11. US warns Cambodia, 2011 Funding is set to expire or freeze
within the year 2 9 10, 11 The Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (MoEYS) The Strategic Implementation Plan's 3 main goals: 1) Ensuring Equitable Access to Education Services
2) Improving the Quality and Efficiency of Education Services
3) Institutional and Capacity Development for Educational Staff for Decentralization 7 Why should we care about education? "Only the educated are free" It leads to poverty reduction. "Investment in rural development, education, and public health . . . would yield the best results in poverty reduction." (Varis, 2008 p. 229) Education has helped nations develop and integrate with the world economy 12 12. Godwyll and Kang (2008)
13. Brinkley (2011)
14. Collins (2010) With greater education, Cambodians can earn more money. Education is essential for development! 13 14 Distance Education 15 15. http://www.onlinedegreetalk.org/wp-content/themes/odt2/images/Learning-with-Distance-Education.jpg Lifelong learning 16 16. Evans, Haughey, & Murphey, 2008 http://tangient.com/wikispaces.png http://static.seekingalpha.com/uploads/2009/4/11/saupload_blackboard_logo_235x227.png http://united.k12.il.us/faculty/moodle.jpg In some instances favors
student achievement 17 17. Bernard et al (2003) In Cambodia DE exists in Cambodia The International Institute of Cambodia started a program in 2005 MoEYS does not mention it as an option - anymore http://www.camhr.com/companyphoto/c20100402164611533/370f42c9-9dbe-4c38-82d1-4aa066b96363.png 18 18 Vuth, Than, Phanousith, Phissamay, & Tai, 2007 http://samoeun.files.wordpress.com/2007/06/title_bar1.gif MoEYS does suggest:
the "mobilization of local resources such as local wisdom, local literacy teachers and walking volunteer teachers to support and carry out literacy classes" (p. 9). 7 Why not distance Education? Infrastructure issues are immense Does it actually work? Who thinks about using phones? Distance education is not perfect - and stigmas exist. However, it has been found to actually favor student achievement
But student retention is lowered 19 What really matters is the pedagogy But will it work on my phone? You can read on them - and outscore your paper-reading classmates 20 20. McConatha, Praul, & Lynch, 2008
21. Thornton & Houser, 2005)
22. Valk, Rashid, & Elder, 2010)
23. Pursell, 2009
24. Al-Fahad, 2009 You can receive content all day long - and perform better than your brick and mortar classmates And, yes, you can replace a whole class and use your phone along with a workbook - and still perform well 21 22 Students also like it It's a preferred replacement for flash cards Students find it to be useful and important, and can improve communication 23 24 How does it work? Example 1: The Philippines Learning took place with a workbook, an audio disc and Short Message Service (SMS ) Learning modules delivered via SMS
Tests and quizzes delivered via SMS In an English Language Class 22 Example 2: Mongolia http://www.marposs.com/backend/worldwide/img_upload/img_big/0809091623100_philippines.jpg http://www.china.org.cn/images/en/privince/gesheng/inner%20mongolia2.gif English Language Learning in Mongolia 22 Very similar to the Filipino case
Students received modules via SMS
Students used a workbook, dictionary, and audio disc
Students performed as well as the face to face What else can students do? Stream and download podcasts to learn languages Read textbooks on their phones Access software (Moodle, Other LMSs) to find quizzes or assignments Location-specific learning with GPS Collect data and document in situations that require portability (think journalism) Barriers to Implementation 25 25 Prensky, 2004 Electricity remains an issue Khmer Unicode is still an issue for some mobile phone users The MoEYS has a stated goal of improving literacy in the Khmer language. Are there human resources?
Are there jobs?
Does the government actually
want to increase education at a high rate? Not everybody in rural communities owns a phone/smart phone/ownership numbers are greatly exaggerated due to people like this guy The grameen phone in Bangladesh puts a rental phone in rural communities http://www.globalpost.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/full-column/cambodia-mobile-phones-2011-01-20-1.jpg Conclusion Cambodia lacks infrastructure and
development that would allow access to education
Without education, a country cannot adequately develop and compete globally
Dropout rates are high; this situation is a poverty trap Distance education could reach the rural population
But, it is too expensive and lacks the needed infrastructure
Commuting to school isn't working, even with scholarships for education Distance Education on mobile phones can
Provide relatively cheap access to more rural homes
Allow individuals to transition to urban lives as they learn ICT skills
Allow the country to compete at a higher level globally
Help the country reduce poverty References Nick Yinger, 2011 Thank you Or this guy Al-Fahad, F. (2009). Students’ attitudes and perceptions towards the effectiveness of mobile learning in King Saud University, Saudi Arabia. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology – TOJET 8(2).
Bernard, R. M., Abram, P. C, Lou, Y., Borokhovski, E., Wade, A., Wozney, L., et al, (2004). How does distance education compare with classroom instruction? A meta analysis of the empirical literature. Review of Educational Research, 74, 379-439.
Cambodian Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport. (2010). Education Strategic Plan 2009-2013. Retrieved from http://www.moeys.gov.kh/DownLoads/Publications/esp/Final_ESP_2009_13_Eng.pdf
Central Intelligence Agency. (2011). The World Factbook: Cambodia. Updated February 11, 2011. Retrieved February 15, 2011, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cb.html
Collins, C.S. (2010). Higher education and global poverty: University partnerships and the World Bank in developing countries. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.
EIU Country Data [Online]. (April 6, 2011). Available: Economist Intelligence Unit.
Evans, T, Haughey, M, & Murphey, D. (2008). International handbook of distance education. Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Godwyll, F, & Kang, S. (Ed.). (2008). Poverty, education and development. New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Mcconatha, D., Praul, M., & Lynch, J. M. (2008). Mobile learning in higher education: An
empirical assessment of a new educational tool. The Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7 (3), 15-21.
Pursell, D. P. (2009). Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Engaging Students with Cell Phone Technology in Organic Chemistry Instruction. Journal of Chemical Education, 86(10), 1219-1222. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Sachs, J. D. (2005). The end of poverty. New York, NY: Penguin Group
Sorasak, P, & Chriv, K. (2009-2010). .kh Cambodia. Digital Review of Asia Pacific 2009-2010, Retrieved from http://www.digital-review.org/uploads/files/pdf/2009-2010/chap-18_cambodia.pdf
Tan, C. (2006). Education reforms in Cambodia: Issues and concerns. Springer Science + Business Media, Retrieved from http://www.springerlink.com/index/n88lv52127787275.pdf 10.1007/s10671-007-9020-3
Thornton, P., & Houser, C. (2005). Using mobile phones in English education in Japan. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21(3), 217-228. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2729.2005.00129.x
US warns Cambodia over controversial law. (2011, April 11). Times Live.
Valk, J., Rashid, A.T., & Elder, L. (2010). Using mobile phones to improve educational outcomes: An analysis of evidence from Asia. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 11(1), Retrieved from Ebsco-Host
Vuth, D, Than, C.C., Phanousith, S., Phissamay, P., & Tai, T.T. (2007) Distance education policy and public awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam. Distance Education, 28(2), Retrieved from Ebsco-Host doi: 10.1080/01587910701439225
Wijers, G.D.M. (2010). Determinants of the digital divide: A study on IT development in Cambodia. Technology in Society, 32. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com
World Bank. (2011). Cambodia: education sector support project. Washington, DC http://bit.ly/iLPK34 http://bit.ly/kjXy6G http://bit.ly/kaQkVi