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Transcript of Science Project
2. The Western Capercaillie(Wood Grouse), is a large bird that weighs 7.2 kg(15.9 lbs) which is found across Asia and Europe.
3. Mostly Coniferous(Common Juniper, European Elver Fir, and Douglas Fir) and with some Deciduous(Linden, Beech, Hazel, and Oak) trees.
4. Hinterwald Cattle, an old, rare breed of cattle that are small compared to the usual sized cows. (115-125 cm tall and 380-480 kg in weight) So what is a Biotic Factor? A biotic factor is any living component that effects another living organism Abiotic Factors in the Black Forest 1. A cover of Sandstone over a a layer of Gneiss and
Granite, created by tectonic evolution.
2. Vosges Mountains, a range of mountains that set border between the Black Forest Germany, and France.
3. The Mummelsee, a large lake located in the northern part of the Black Forest.
4. Erdmann Cave, one of the few caves located at the Black Forest. So what is a Abiotic Factor? Abiotic factors are non-living components that effect the life of an organism While biotic factors and abiotic factors are different, they are bond together by the fact that often biotic factors compete with each other for abiotic factors. In the Black Forest, the caves are rare and small, for their are made out of granite and does not take form easily. Biotic factors such as rodents, bats, and many other creatures seek shelter in these caves, often competing with each other for a spot inside. Differences between
the two factors Abiotic Factors:
- Nonliving Components
- Affect ecosystems and organisms to different extents
- Soil, water, air, temperature, and sunlight (SWATS) Biotic Factors:
- Living Components/Organisms
- Shape an ecosystem
- Producers, consumers, decomposers, etc. Levels of Organization Organism-Population-Community-Ecosystem Organism/Individual: A living component that shapes an ecosystem. (Rat, plant, squirrel, etc.) Population: Multiples of the same organisms of the same group or species. (Group of rats, rabbits, etc.) Community: Assemblage of multiple populations, interacting with each other. (Rabbits, squirrels, birds interacting) Ecosystem: A community of biotic factors in correspondence with abiotic factors, interacting as a system. (Great Plains, Gobi Desert, etc) Level of Organization in the Black Forest Single Western Capercallie: (Organism) Group of Western Capercallies: (Population) Group of Animals and Organisms: (Community)
(Raccoons, Bears, Kiwi Bird, Beaver, Western Capercallie, Deer, Red Fox, Squirrel, Owl) The Black Forest: (Ecosystem) Parasite/Host Relationships
Within the Black Forest Parasitism: A symbiotic relationship where one organism is benefited while the other is harmed.
Host: A organism that is "hosting" or harboring a parasite. 1. Wood Ticks/Deers - The deer provides the tick a ride and shelter while the tick in return sucks blood from the deer and possibly pass disease. 2. Fleas/Bears - Fleas are common pests located in every corner of the world. In relation to the bear however, the flea irritates and leaves rashes on the bear while the bear provides it a ride and shelter and food (its blood). *Note that these parasites could just as well harm any other organism* 3. Tapeworms/Cattle - Not only could tapeworms be found in every living animal, it is evident in the Black Forest that tapeworms often occupy the cattle roaming the fields of the land. Like most parasitism relationships, the cattle provides the tapeworm a home, while the worm eats its food and eventually could lead to disease and malnutrition. Predator-Prey Relationships
within the Black Forest Predator: An organism that is hunting another organism. No organism is classified as a predator forever, and could be turned into a prey once hunted by another animal. Prey: An organism that is being hunted by another organism. As said before, no organism is classified as a prey forever, and could be turned into a predator once hunting another organism. 1. Bear(Omnivore)/Salmon(Omnivore): The Bear in the Black Forest is a omnivore that eats berries, certain plants, and fish such as Salmon that swim upstream. After eating the Salmon, the Bear acquires energy from it and is able to survive in the wild. 2. Wolf(Carnivore)/Deer(Herbivore): Though wolves aren't a common sight in the Black Forest, when they are spotted, they are often in packs, and hunting deer. The deer provides the wolf it's energy and allows it to survive in the forest. 3. Wild Hogs(Omnivore)/Ground Nesting Birds(Omnivore): Wild Hogs eat about anything from insects to plants to young birds. Often when the birds are caught unawares or when they fall out of their nest, the Wild Hog approaches it and eats it for energy, giving it the nutrition to survive. Parts of the Food chain in the Black Forest So what is a food chain?
A food chain is a single link of the food web which shows how energy is passed on from one organism to another organism. What is the source of all Energy?
The source of all energy is the Sun which gives
energy to the producers by the use of Photosynthesis. The Sun (Source of all Energy) Grass (Producer) Rabbit (Primary Consumer) Red Fox (Secondary Consumer) Wolves (Tertiary Consumer) Mushroom (Decomposer) Freshwater Food Web in the Black Forest This is an example of the food web in the lakes of the Black Forest! Sun Water bug Lake plant (lily-pad) Small Lake Fish Lake Trout Brown Broad-Winged Hawk Freshwater Catfish Alligator Terrestrial Food Web In the Black Forest Grasshopper Sun Rabbit Grass Wood Bird Red Fox Wood Mouse Wolves Wood Bear Impact on Food Web Lets say that the rabbit is eliminated from the food web. The effect of this is that there will be more competition between the wolf, fox, and bear. Also, with the rabbit gone, the fox will only have the wood bird and wood mouse to provide it with the energy it needs to survive. Not only will this decrease the fox population by limited food amounts, but because more bears and wolves to hunt foxes because they too, lost one source of food. Not only will the fox population decrease but the mouse and also the mouse, for the little animal will now hunted more than often. The only organism that benefits from this is the wood bird, for with the fox population decreased, the only other predator is the wolf, which raises up the population of the wood bird for there's less predators. This is an example of the food web in the Black Forest without the rabbit inside it! Wood Mouse Sun Grass Grass-Hopper Bear Fox Wood bird Wolf See the diagram below for a visual aid! Citations 1. "Ecosystem." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Apr. 2013. Web. 05 Apr. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem>.
Website 2. "Germany/Animals in the Black Forest." Germany: Animals in the Black Forest, South East France, Alpine Foothills. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2013. <http://en.allexperts.com/q/Germany-141/Animals-Black-Forest.htm>. 3. "Biology-Online Dictionary." Biology-Online Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2013. <http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Main_Page>. 4. "HHMI's BioInteractive - Free Resources for Science Teachers and Students." HHMI's BioInteractive - Free Resources for Science Teachers and Students. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2013. <http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/>. 5. "Online Biology Dictionary." Macroevolution.net. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Apr. 2013. <http://www.macroevolution.net/biology-dictionary.html>. Conclusion So what are the levels of consumers?
Primary consumers are consumers that eat only
producers such as grass. While secondary are
consumers that eat only primary, and finally the
tertiary consumers eat both primary and secondary.
But all of these could change, where the tertiary becomes a secondary and the secondary becomes a tertiary depending on the organisms and food chains. In conclusion, the Black Forest is a very
interesting forest ecosystem that has unique animals and plant life inside it. From Western Capercallies to Hinterwald Cattle, the Black Forest is a very diverse place with all sorts of wildlife. It's ecosystem is common among the forest ecosystems and food chains/webs as well, but it's difference is the animals that habitat it, making the Black Forest not only a tourist attraction, but a haven for wild life. *Note: There is no marine time(ocean) bodies near the Black Forest* Mushroom Mushroom Legends in the Black Forest!! 1. Erdmännlein, A underwater king in the lake of Mummelsee that drags down animals 2. Werewolves at the dead of night
3. DWARVES!!! In caves and sometimes seen wandering the forest
4. Ghosts and magical beings that appear only when most silent *All of these were sighted before and passed down from generations* By: Hubert Ning