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Transcript of Hundred Years'War
They won the two major battles at Crecy (1346) (led by Edward III) and Poitiers (1356), mainly thanks to a tactic which employed archers in battle, with bow and arrows, and foot soldiers who defeated the undisciplined and led to the peace of Bretigny, 1360, following which the British controlled the entire South -West of France: resources so the kingdom “Anglo Atlantic" which seemed finished with the Battle of Bouvines (1214) heavy French knights and archers.
THE THIRD STEP
Also thanks to the action of John the Fearless, the war between France and England resumed in 1415:
the Charles VI troops were defeated at Azincourt. After five years marked by bloody wars, in 1420 he came to the Peace of Troyes, in favor of the British. Henry V, the English king, Charles VI and married a French royal princess was forced to sign an act by which Henry V became the first heir to the throne, while the legitimate child heir to the throne was called "bastard" and excluded from the succession. In 1422, Henry V and Charles VI died: the son of Henry, who was a year old, was proclaimed king of France, but all the northern and western part of the kingdom became English.
Joan of Arc
JOAN OF ARC’S EARLY LIFE
Born around 1412, Joan of Arc was the daughter of a tenant farmer, from the village of Domrémy, in northeastern France.
She was not taught to read or write, but her pious mother instilled in her a deep love for the Catholic Church and its teachings.
The Hundred Years War broke out for two main reasons:
dynastic disputes and economic political reasons. In fact, Edward III claimed the succession to the throne of France as related to the French dynasty and challenged the accession to the throne of Philip VI.
The second cause concerns the region of Flanders, who was politically under the control of France, but economically was in commercial connections with England. For the crisis the nobility flanked dynasties hoping to conquer new lands and grab the few remaining resources, so both the kings wanted to expand its presence in this territory. So in 1337 Edward III landed in France and hostilities became permanently War in 1346.
In the battle of Poitiers was captured the French King John II, 'the Good'. This).
Charles V, King of France between 1369 and 1380, recovered much of the lost territory in the Battle of Crecy (1346).
Joan of Arc believed that God had chosen her to lead France to victory in its long-running war with England
By the time she was officially canonized in 1920, the Maid of Orléans (as she was known) had long been considered one of history’s greatest saints, and an enduring symbol of French unity and nationalism.
THE FIRST STEP
BATTLE OF CRECY AND POITIERS, PEACE OF BRETIGNY (1360).
OF THE WAR OF THE CENTURY, (1415 - 1420)
At the age of 13, Joan began to hear voices, which she determined had been sent by God to give her a mission of overwhelming importance: to save France by expelling its enemies, and to install Charles as its rightful king. As part of this divine mission, Joan took a vow of chastity.
At the age of 16, after her father attempted to arrange a marriage for her, she successfully convinced a local court that she should not be forced to accept the match.
THE SECOND STEP
In May 1369, the Black Prince, son of Edward III of England, refused to travel to Paris to pay tribute to the king of France and Charles responded by declaring war.
The casus belli became so pretext to take possession back the lost territory and officially recognized by the British treaty imposed in Brétigny, and until his death (1380), his efforts were crowned with success.
His successor, Charles VI, pulverized the conflict in a series of skirmishes that effectively created a deadlock, also helped by the little antagonist resourcefulness, Richard II, son of the Black Prince. The two signed a ceasefire in 1389, which it was renewed several times until 1415, when the war resumed.
An intermittent struggle between England and France in the 14th–15th century over a series of disputes, including the question of the legitimate succession to the French crown.
Hundred Years’ War
Was divided into three periods:
the first step, the Edoardiana's phase (1337- 1360)
the second step, the Carolina's phase (1369- 1415)
the third step, the Lancaster's phase (1415- 1453)
The Carolina War
Thanks to the uprising of patriotic spirit caused by Giovanna d'Arco, Charles VII, regained many territories of the British. In 1453 the war ended with the retreat of the English, even though it was never signed a peace treaty. The British were expelled from Gascony and Normandy and retained only Calais.
THE END OF WAR, 1453.
JOAN’S JOURNEY TO ORLÉANS
In May 1428, Joan made her way Vaucouleurs, a nearby stronghold of those loyal to Charles.
Joan cropped her hair and dressed in men’s clothes to make the 11-day journey across enemy territory to Chinon, site of the crown prince’s palace.
DOWNFALL OF JOAN OF ARC
After such a miraculous victory, Joan’s reputation spread far and wide among French forces. So, Joan was becoming too powerful.
In the spring of 1430, the king ordered Joan to confront a Burgundian assault on Compiégne. In her effort to defend the town and its inhabitants, she was thrown from her horse, and was left outside the town’s gates as they closed. The Burgundians took her captive, and brought her amid much fanfare to the castle of Bouvreuil, occupied by the English commander at Rouen.
In May 1431, after a year in captivity and under threat of death, Joan relented and signed a confession denying that she had ever received divine guidance. Several days later, however, she defied orders by again donning men’s clothes, and authorities pronounced her death sentence. On the morning of May 30, at the age of 19, Joan was taken to the old market place of Rouen and burned at the stake.