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Antimicrobial agents

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farah ziyadeh

on 21 October 2015

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Transcript of Antimicrobial agents

Antimicrobial agents
Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
- ALL are BACTERICIDAL
- act on transpeptidase enzyme causing cell wall synthesis to shutdown
- Structure : beta lactam ring
beta lactam ring
CEPHALOSPORINS STRUCTURE
Vancomycin
- IV
- gram positive bacteria only
- side effects : red man syndrome
FIRST DISCOVERED Antibiotic
Penicillin G
-
bactericidal
vs
bacteriostatic

Ime
pen
em and Mero
pen
em
- the pen can terminate all the bacteria that are difficult to treat
Az
tre
onam
1) ANTIBACTERIAL AGENTS
- Mechanism of action :
* inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
*inhibitors of bacterial protein synthesis
*inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis
* others
to be active beta lactam agent must be able to :
- penetrate the cell layers
- keep it's beta lactam ring intact
-bind to transpeptidase ( PBP )


was discovered by Alexander Fleming, Professor of Bacteriology at St. Mary's Hospital in London.
Cephalosporins
- 5 generations
- with each generation activity against
gram ngetive bacteris increases

- gram -ve aerobic bacteria only
Inhibitors of protein synthesis
- bacterial ribosomes are different from our ribosomes so these agents are only directed against pathogens
CLEan TAG
Chloramphenicol
Erythromycin
Tetracyclin
Aminoglycosides
4 categories :
- ANTIbacterial agents
-ANTIfungal agents
-ANTIprotozoal agents
-ANTIviral agents
Aminoglycosides
- the only bactericidal among other agents in the same category
- act on small subunit 30s
- interfere with initiation complex formation
- mostly end with (-mycin)
- act on gram -ve rodes
-" A MEAN GUY "
Tetracyclins

- 30s
- block attachment of aminoacyl tRNA to the acceptor site
- bacteriostatic

- a Macrolide
- 50s
- Bacteriostatic
- gram +ve & ATYPICAL bacteria
- inhibits cytochrome P450s
Erythromycin
Chloramphenicol
- 50s
- bacteriostatic
- wide spectrum
- " gray baby syndrome "

Inhibitors of nucleic acid synthesis
- inhibition of folic acid synthesis

- Direct inhibition of nucleic acid synthesis
Sulfonamides
Quinolones
Metronidazole
antibacterial
antiprotozoal
Anti Tuberculosis
combinations to prevent resistance + provide additive effect
References :
- kaplan pharmacology 2013
- microbiology MRS
Full transcript